H C Singh

1966 -70

For Indira Gandhi, after couple of month of her assuming Prime Ministership of a vast country, with many languages and as many cultures and aspirations, many problems cropped up. As she was not highly educated and not even had read a lot, not even traveled a lot, she had to face multiple problems unlike her father. When Nehru became Prime Minister of India in 1946, he had backing of Mahatma Gandhi and the entire Congress Party that had led Independence movement for more than 50 years. Indira Gandhi had no leader like Gandhi Ji , no unified Congress Party to back her under all Circumstance, no strong leaders like Sardar Patel whose loyalty to congress Party was above board.

As stated, in January 66 she had assumed office and in March 66, Mizo problem flared up under the leadership of Laldenga of Mizo National Front, Many followers of Laldenga resorted to large scale violence. They attacked government property ransacked post offices, looted banks, blocked roads to disrupt the entire communication in Mizo Area. It is said that Laldenga’s followers made an effort to turn the Assam Rifles out of the town. But Indira Gandhi’s government was helpless in solving the Mizo problem , Mizo’s had even declared that they had seceded from the Indian Union and Mizoland was now independent, Meanwhile the Naga problem flared up. The Nagas took to jungles and came out at night. There was a Peace Mission in Nagaland which to the dismay of India, had collapsed. Jayaparkash Narain told the Naga rebels, led by Fhizo from outside India that in view of Pakistan’s abject defeat in 1965 war under Lal Bahadur Shastri, to withdraw their demand for independence and should come forward to accept autonomy for Nagaland. JP went ahead and advised Phizo’s men to forget armed rebellion and fight coming elections. J.P. and even the Govt. of India lost confidence in Michael Scott, who was, apparently trying for Peace Agreement of Naga’s with Indian Government, was in fact under the influence of Phizo, was trying to “internationalize” the demand for Nagaland as an independent Country. In the meanwhile Naga hard-core rebels under guidance of Phizo and Scott were trying to approach China for help. Thus Nagaland problem in 1966-67 remained at standstill. By 1971-72 Naga’s were satisfied by the fact that Nagaland was a state of Indian Union.

There was another outstanding problem which Nehru had delayed for a long ie Sikhs demand for Punjabi Saba that areas of East Punjab which were Punjabi speaking should be carved into a separate state. “Indira Gandhi paid high tributes to valiant Sikh soldiers during 1965 war against Pakistan where Sikh commanders as well as jawans had distinguished themselves in large numbers . Their bravery in the war impelled the government of India to concede a long standing demand of the Sikhs. In March 66, a Committee of MP’s had recommended the bifurcation of East Punjab into Sikh majority Punjabi speaking state, Hindi speaking Hindu majority area into a separate state of Haryana and Hill areas including Shimla into a Hill state of Himachal Paradesh. This goes to the credit of Indira Gandhi though the problem of Chandigarh, which Sikhs demanded for inclusion in Punjabi Saba but was ultimately made a Union territory which had the High Court of Punjab and Haryana as well secretariat of both states.

In 1966 there was a virtual famine in many parts of India because of failure of monsoon. Both in 1965 and 1966 India imported under PL-480 loan, 15 million tonnes of wheat from USA to feed its hungry and starving people. Thereafter India started introducing bumper crops of wheat particularly in Punjab and Haryana by importing seeds of Mexican Wheat that started producing bumper crop of wheat. This was called Green Revolution in India for which, too, credit must go to Indira Gandhi, her Agriculture Minister Sarbeamaniam and Scientists of Indian Agricultural Research Institute led by Dr Swaminathan and many other senior and junior scientists who were motivated to experiment with Mexican wheat and supply its seeds to farmers after demonstrating to them its qualities.

But in 1967 Indira Gandhi’s popularity was at lowest ebb. Congress was not only opposed by rightist and religious parties like Swatantra Party and Jan Sangh but surprisingly by all factions of Communist and Socialist parties. In addition Congress was vehemently and even violently opposed by some regional parties, like DMK in Madras that for the first time congress was facing elections as a political loser not as a victor.

One of the worst defeat suffered by Congress since its inception was in Madras. In the far south, DMK won 138 seats in a house of 234 while Congress, the national party won paltry 50 seats. Main vote catches for Madras were renowned Film actor M G Ramachandra and famous script writer M. Karunanidhi. Just a month before elections M G was shot and wounded by his rival film actor (M R Radha). This incident helped DMK to win more votes as MGR’s fans everywhere used the wounded MGR’s photograph to win favors for MGR who had landslide victory and DMK was equally victorious.

Surprisingly Congress also lost Kerala in spite of split in the Communist Party into CPM and CPI. As a result congress got only 50 seats in the house of 133, CPM winning 52 while CPI getting only 19. M. S Nambodripad became Chief Minister a second time to avenge his overthrow undemocratically by Indira Gandhi when she was Congress President under Nehru, She had created so called mass upsurge against M.S and communists in particular.

Similarly Congress also lost to left front alliance and other Splinter groups including Bangla Congress. Bangla Congress leader Ajoy Mukherjee became the CM while Jyoti Basu leader of CPM as Dy C M. However this coalition government was for less than a year and President’s Rule was imposed. However this led to increase in the votes of CPM substantially in the elections held 1969. CPM becoming for the first time single largest Party with 80 seats. Ajoy Mukherjee of Bangla Congress once again was elected by the alliance as CM while CPM proposed to retain Home Portfolio.

In Orissa, too, Congress lost for the first time despite its strongman Biju Patnaik being its leader. Corruption charges against Biju Patnaik, that he had accepted bribes and allotted lucrative government contracts to his favorite businessmen. Congress of Indira Gandhi was routed by an alliance of Swatantra and Jana Congress . Congress also suffered set-backs in other states like UP, MP, Haryana and Bihar where Congress Government were not stable, these fell because groups of disgruntled Congress MLA’s moved towards the opposition.

In 1969 Congress had to concede to the demand of All Party Hill leaders conference as in 1967 elections congress was routed in this hill region. In December 1969 there was trouble in another Hill state in Eastern region called Meghalya, tribal districts of Assam Viz Khasi Janita and Garo Hills.

As Congress under Indira Gandhi’s rule had lost many states and many others were not sure weather Congress will continue to rule under Indira’s Prime Minister ship, there was rise of communalism, many little rebellions and lawlessness. There was instability of governing party or governing coalition. According to figures released by National Integration Council, Communal Violence incidences were 132 in 1966, 220 in 1967 and as many as 346 in 1968. States of UP and Bihar were the worst in violence between Hindus and Muslims, Worst case of Communal Violence occurred in Congress ruled Gujarat where Muslim youths had entered a temple and broken idols being worshiped by devout Hindus. In retaliation Hindu Youths attacked Muslim shops and there were pitched battles in narrow streets of Ahmadabad and adjoining cities, As a result more than 1000 lives were lost in Communal Violence in Congress ruled state of Gujarat.

To cool down tempers and to gain Muslim sympathy, Dr Zakir Hussain was elected President of India, for the first time a Muslim became President of India while another Muslim was Chief Justice of India, thus paving the way for Vote bank Politics which Congress and Communists have made use of since then.

Kashmir was peaceful throughout 1966 chiefly because of defeat of Pakistan in 1965 war. But Problem of Kashmir existed and detention of Sheikh Abdullah had kept it smoldering. In this case, too, J P intervened for restoration of lasting peace which was need of the hour and wrote a letter to Indira Gandhi for release of Sheikh Abdullah who was unnecessarily being dubbed as a traitor. JP wrote to hold general elections in Kashmir with Sheikh Abdullah in prison is like the British ordering an election in India while Jawahar Lal was in Jail.

Indira Gandhi wrote back a brief note thanking JP for sharing his views on Kashmir and Sheikh Abdullah, but took no action in that direction. But after India’s emphatic victory against Pakistan by India’s intervention in East Pakistan on behalf of Sheikh Mujibul Rehman and ultimate defeat of Pakistan Army and creation of Bangladesh, Indira Gandhi felt bold. After a year in March 68, Sheikh Abdullah was freed from House Arrest in Kodaikanal and allowed to live in Delhi throughout 1971. In June 1972 Sheikh Abdullah was allowed to visit Kashmir valley where he got hero’s welcome by lakh’s of Kashmiris. Sheikh had abandored demand for plebiate and said ‘I am an Indian and India is my homeland’. Sheikh Abdullah now was planning to become once again Chief Minister by fighting the coming elections.

August 24, 2009 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

1964 – 1966

With the demise of Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, who was Prime Minister of India for 17 years, war of succession between leaders of congress Parliamentary Party and Congress working committee started with full force. Gulzari Lal Nanda was made interim PM Nanda could not be a regular PM as he was neither very popular nor very resourceful with a following.

K. Kamraj who was from a low caste family of Madras, had been Chief Minister of his state and then slowly and steadily climbed to the position of Congress President. Immediately after the death of Pandit Nehru, he started consulting Chief Ministers of all congress-ruled states and other senior leaders. He himself opted out because he had neither proficiency in Hindi nor in English as he was dropout from school and had joined Indian independence movement under Mahatma Gandhi. The final contest was between Murarji Desai and Lal Bahadur Shastri.

Murarji Desai was not preferred by many because he was hot-headed and arrogant and would not show respect to juniors or listen to other MPs. On the other hand Shastri had the reputation of being cool-headed and also experience of being a fine administor in Nehru’s cabinet. Accordingly Desai was persuaded by Kamraj to withdraw his candidature to which he reluctantly agreed.

After his illness, mainly because of shock of defeat of India from China in 1962 war and thereafter because of loss of prestiege both in India and abroad because he was founder and leader of non-aligned nations, Nehru persuaded Lal Bahadur Shastri to join cabinet as Minister without portfolio but in effect he was virtually deputy to Nehru, though not designated as deputy PM. This one fact paved the way after Nehru’s demise for shastri elevation, though process was quite tough as a result of war of succession started. I reproduce below extracts from Guha’s book “India After Gandhi” which shows how finally succession to Nehru was resolved.
They had decided on Shastri because Shastri was supported by some powerful leaders of groups or States, largely I think because of antagonism to Morarji; Shastri was regarded as the lesser of two evils. Morarji is unpopular in large sections of the country because of his rigidity. Kamaraj announced the next day that he had seen everybody concerned and his view was that Shastri should be the next leader. Shastriji was correct in his behaviour. He said he was not going to contest the leadership, he would not split the party. He knew he was going to be the Prime Minister.”

On assuming Prime Ministership Shastriji faced a number of problems: the first problem or issue that he faced was: whether India should also go for manufacture and stockpile of Atom Bombs in view of china having tested an atomic bomb in Oct 1964. The eminent atomic scientist Dr. Homi J Bhaba agreed for the manufacture as India was capable scientifically and economically and also needed it inview of Indian Army’s defeat in 1962 war. But Shastri stuck to his Gandhian philosophy of peace and non violence. The opposition, particularly Jan Sangh, who had been advertising for the manufacture and testing of the atom bomb which will raise India’s prestiege in the comity of nations. But Shastri argued in Parliament in a defensive manner that these bombs were a threat to survival of humanity. Thus the move in Parliament on the issue of atomic bomb was defeated because of high cost as well as because it was against the Gandhian philosophy.

The second issue that came up was whether Hindi should be sole official language of union of India or English should be retained along with Hindi as official language. The constitution of 1950 had granted 15 years for English to continue as second official language of the Union of India. The southern states, in particular, and all other non-Hindi speaking states opposed first silently and then violently as the ‘grace period’ was coming to close. As long ago in 1956, Academy of Tamil Culture passed resolution that English should continue as official language of Union along with Hindi. This resolution was supported and signed by C.N. Annudurai and E.V. Ramaswami ‘Periyar’ and even C.Rajagopal Achari, eminent freedom fighter and Gandhiji’s associate as well as former Governor General of India. Just 15 days before Republic Day of 1965 Annudurai wrote to Prime Minister Shastri that Tamil Nadu would observe the day of change over i.e. Republic Day of 1965 as day of mourning and even suggested that the day of change over should be postponed so that Tamils could join in the celebration of Republic Day of 1965.

But Shastri was adamant. He stood by the decision of 1960 to enforce only Hindi as sole official language. As a result DMK launched a campaign throughout Tamil Nadu. Hindi books and even relevant pages of the Constitution were burnt in public. Hindi signs throughout Tamil Nadu particularly those on Railway Stations and Post Offices were defarced. There were pitched battles between demonstrators and police all over Tamil Nadu in all districts and even in remote villages. On Republic 1956 two families set themselves on fire in Madras. Shastri was in a dilemma. His heart was for Hindi, but on 11th February 1956 two ministers from Tamil Nadu resigned. This made Shastri to rethink whether unity of India was more important or enforcement of Hindi as sole official language of the India. In all 12 young men in Tamil Nadu had lost their lives in 1956 opposing imposition of Hindi, beside one of the most prominent Tamil Politician Sriramulu. This forced Shastri to change his mind and so English continues to be second official language of the union.

Next headache of Shastri was Pakistani aggression in Kashmir where a few days earlier in first week of August 1966 Pakistani Soldiers had crossed LOC and captured Akhnoor Bridge the only link between Jammu and Kashmir and state of Indian Punjab. India was left with no alternative than to send the elite Indian Army Regiments to fight against Pakistani aggression. As Pakistani soldiers had taken initiative and were well entrenched, Indian army felt difficult in dislodging them though after bitter fight they had captured Haji Pir- a strategic point. The Prime Minister and equally bold Defence Minister S B Chavan, unlike Nehru and Krishna Menon in 1962 opened a second front crossing the Wagha and other Borders and invading Pakistan proper. There were pitched battles but Indian Army with Tanks and Air Cover repulsed them and in short time they were halfway to Lahore. General Ayub of Pakistan got panic, fearing Lahore will be captured by Indian Army and thus humiliating Pakistan and capturing the only Railway link to Sindh and vast area of Pakistani Punjab. Hundreds of tanks were used by both India and Pakistan. It was considered biggest tank battle after World War II. Thus Pakistan approached USA and China and UN. Accordingly then UN Secretary General came to New Delhi to persuade India for cease-fire which India, though reluctant, as India wanted to teach lesson to Pakistan that aggression against India and Kashmir will not pay. On September 22 there was UN sponsored cease fire and hostilities ended.

During war with Pakistan, Shastri coined the slogan which is famous and will remain, like Jai Hind slogan of Netaji forever – JAI JAWAN, JAI KISAN, meaning hail the soldiers, hail the farmer.
After the end of hostilities and when cease fire became effective, Soviet Union offered to mediate between India and Pakistan for a lasting peace. As a result in January 1966, President Ayub Khan and Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri met in TASHKENT (USSR). Tashkent Agreement required that each country should return to old borders and withdraw their troops to the portion as was on 5th August 1965 when hostilities commenced. Thus India had to return to Pakistani possession HAJI PIR pass in Kashmir captured after great sacrifice by Indian army. As Shastri had said at a number of public meetings that under no circumstances India will vacate Haji Pir pass and give back to Pakistan. It was an unbearable shock for shastri, somewhat like defeat against china in 1962 that became unbearable shock to his predecessor Nehru. Thus Shastri, after signing the Tashkent agreement on 10th January 1966, had a heart attack that very night and passed away. On 11th his body was flown to Delhi in a soviet aircraft. His body was placed in green carriage followed by a million of Indian people and cremated near Gandhi and Nehru’s Samadhi in Nigambodh Ghat after all the leaders of all the political parties had paid glowing tribute. The highest tribute to Shastri was paid all over India and the world as will be evident from extracts from Americans LIFE magazine given below:
“Shastri gave India a ‘mood-a new steeliness and sense f national unity’.” Life magazine with cover story on Shastri with a number of catching photographs also said that “Indians all over came to honour a man with whom many Indians felt a closer affinity than with Nehru. Nehru like Roosevelt came from a rich family while Shastri like Truman came from an ordinary family. Though Truman was US President for 7 years Shastri was India’s Prime Minister for less than two years. Thus it can be concluded that Shastri’s status in India was more than Truman’s status in USA.”

It was India’s misfortune that India’s Iron-man Sardar Patel passed away before Chinese war and did not survive Nehru. It was India’s another bad luck that Shastri did not survive after virtually winning the war and giving crushing defeat to Pakistani soldiers who ultimately retreated and sued for peace through USSR, USA and UN mediation.

With the untimely and unexpected death of Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri at Tashkent, the war of succession started once again. Once again Murarji Desai staked his claim to Prime Ministership more vigorously thanafter demise of Pandit Nehru. Once again K.Kamraj, the congress President played the role of a king maker. He got into consultation with all the congress-ruled chief Minister and Leaders of the Congress Party in and outside Parliament. Once again Gulzari Lal Nanda was sworn in as acting and interim Prime Minister.

Though Kamraj was now to an extent in favour of Desai becoming PM, yet he was left with no alternative than to place the matter before the congress parliamentary party though Kamraj and many senior leaders of congress had already proposed the name of Indra Gandhi because she was till then calm and quiet, considerate and non-controversial and above all she was daughter of Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru who was India’s first PM and remained in that position for 17 long years despite strongmen of congress like Sardar Patel who had his own way on important issues like Police action in Hyderabad as well as sending Indian Army to Kashmir to fight the invaders and Pakistan Army.

On insistence of Desai and his hope that as he had more experience both as Chief Minister of Bombay as well as central leader and almost right-hand man of Pandit Nehru for a long time in comparison to Indra Gandhi who had no administrative experience at all. Accordingly Desai demanded election of PM after voting.

On 19th January 1966, voting took place in congress Parliamentary Party and Indra Gandhi won with thumping majority by 355 votes against Desai getting only 169. It was indirectly Kamraj’s victory, as he had lined up most of the senior leaders and chief Ministers behind Indra Gandhi by his constant meeting with leaders particularly of the south India and even “large scale lobbying and hectic horse trading”.

Indra Gandhi was second woman Prime Minister in the whole world so far. Srimavo Bandaranaike of Ceylon was the first. Indra was hailed particularly by the Indian women, who were quite backward and even neglected by most of men in India. For first couple of months Indra was having absolutely peaceful life, receiving congratulations and bouquets of flowers from Indian leaders, cabinet minister, state, governors etc and also from leaders all over the world. But in March trouble started in Mizo hills a tribal area bordering East Pakistan. Under the leadership of Laldenga leader of MNF (Mizo National Front) who had contact with military government of East Pakistan for getting arms and logistic support. More on Indra Gandhi’s Prime Ministership in next chapter.

August 24, 2009 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Chapter 7 by Agya Ram Sakya

Caste is an ubiquitious institution in India. Despite Hindus, it is found in Muslims, Sikh, Jain, Christians and Jews in some respects too. But in Hindus it is an unique as daily life in a person is regulated by the code of caste. The rights of birth, marriage and death, the customs in the matter of food, dress, and ornaments, the course of polite conversations. Every caste is conscious of its existence and keeps a great loyalty towards in members. To a great degree caste and kinship priorities are higher for them oftenly in place of region, religion or nation. In our country each village, each town or each city has been inhabitated into caste-wise or similar caste colonies. Even a single Dalit house can not be seen in the Savarna colony. Dalit cremation places are also separate here. Thus the each caste is a social unit in itself and customs, rituals, status, occupation and values etc. are different from caste to caste in all Hindus.

However all Hindus are divided into thousands of castes but they are comparatmentalised into two groups i.e. Savarna and Sudra. Savarnas are called high castes and they consists of Brahman, Rajputas and trader castes. They are owner of means of production, rich and educated and have high status in the society. Whereas Sudras are low caste, sometimes they are called “Dalits”. They are poor, uneducated and have no status.

August 24, 2009 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Failure of Government on uplift of Poor and Dalits

In 62 years since independence, nothing substantial or landmark achieved for under privileged could be recognized. During last few years in particular India’s economy grew at the rate of 8 to 12 percent but the huge revenue was not used for the benefit of poor and down-troden, nor for removal of social injustices. As Amartya Sen rightly says “If we generate more public resources and use them with a better identification of the prevailing injustices in India, we could make a big change.” But we did nothing to improve the lot of poor who are starving and many committing suicide, particularly in vidharba, Maharashtra: for unemployed millions, for much as deprived of even primary education, for women particularly of backward classes called Dalit, who have no shelter, health care for the poor and underprivileged.

It has been acknowledged by all, who are concerned with the uplift of the poor as Amratya Sen and are even shocked to see and feel mass poverty widespread illiteracy, glaring inequality violence, corruption in all fields and everywhere particularly in politicians bureaucrats, police officials, excise and income tax departments. Communalism is on increase particularly after Babri Masjid demolition by BJP and Shiv Sena. In the rural areas, villagers and farmers one sec domination of capitalist rich farmers, who themselves do nothing. This has led to erosion of traditional values and precarious conditions of agricultural laboures and industrial workers.

The condition of Dalits, particularly in villages is as bad as it was prior to independence. Here I quote from an article by Agya Ram Sakya to clarify the position and failure of government of India in 62 years to improve the condition of Dalits.

August 24, 2009 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment


RSS & BJP should not deviate the fundamentals Hinduism viz its tolerance for other religions, its refusal never to convert people from other religions even peacefully by persuasion what to speak of converting forcibly as Islam and to an extent Christians did and are inclined to do even in 21st century. It is well known that Jehadis aim is to convert most of South East Asia to Islam and Christian fundamentalists of USA are collecting dollars in millions from common citizens and sending through their agents to local Bishops for use of execution as through providing economic and social benefits to the poor, particularly as seen recently in Tamil Nadu and Uruva.

In this connection I shall like to quote from the article ‘why the God can’t Fail by Wendy Doniger who is Professor of History of Religions at the University of Chicago. USA . Her latest book is “The Hindus An Alternative History”

The genius of Hinduism has always been grounded in its malleability and diversity, its ability to grow and change through its receptivity to the ideas and customs of people other than Hindus. This gives it a terrific edge over those branches of the monotheistic religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam) that are straitjacketed by a single canon (Bible or Qu’ran) and/or a single governing body (Pope or Ulema). Yet a serious threat to the future of Hinduism is posed by a bad habit that some Hindus have recently caught from the extreme fringes of those monotheisms: fundamentalism.

But the serpent in this inter-religious Eden was the monotheistic itch to convert, which often soured Hindu relations with both Islam and Christianity. (Judaism did not, for the most part, proselytise and the Jews in any case remained a small minority in India.The Hinduism of the future will have to survive in a multi-cultural, multi-religious India that simply will not be homogenised; it will have to flow with, rather than against, the currents of modernisation and globalisation.

As I have stated and emphasized at many pages of this article and BJP-RSS. Professor Vendy Doniger who is apparently non-Indian and non-Hindu, has now made it clear for everyone Hindus and non Hindus in general are more receptive of other peoples good customs and behaviour. So, Hindu must not follow strictly Hindutva but modernise as the time demands. That is the only way of survival of BJP as a secular all India Party and indirectly of Hinduism in liberal and modern form.

August 24, 2009 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Passing away of Pandit Nehru

(Brief assessment of Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru)

In 1964, India’s first PM who became Prime Minister in 1946 in united India before Partition of 1947, passed away after 18 years as PM, longest period for any PM, except in communist country. Pandit Nehru from 1946 to 1950, as long as Mountbatten was Governor General of British India or even after Indian Independence, was subservient to Lord Mountbatten and till the departure of Mountbatten he was like member of Mountbatten family. This proved to be curse because Mountbatten mischievously had added a clause while accepting, Kashmir’s instrument of accession to India, duly segined by Maharaja Hari Singh, and forwarded to Pandit Nehru by Kashmir’s ‘PM’ Mehar chand Mahajan, whom Jawahar Lal had a fortnight earlier told to get -lost. When he had come with the same instrument of accession, though hundred of princely States sent the similar Instrument Accession which were accepted. In Kashmir’s case, Pandit Nehru received the Instrument of Accession when Sheikh Mohd Abdullah told the PM of India that Pakistani invaders had almost reached the outskirts of Srinagar and on the way they were looting and indiscriminately molesting Hindu, Sikh and Muslim women.

To India’s and Kashmir’s misfortune Kashmir’s instrument of Accession was sent to Mountbatten who had added, as said earlier, an uncalled for and dangerous clause that ‘will of the people of Kashmir’ will be taken afterwards. Jawahar Lal Nehru as India PM could have deleted this clause after discussing with GG but did not or could not use his intelligence, discretion or authority as Prime Minister considering himself the final authority and Mountbatten as titular head. It was only after Mountbatten’s departure that he became real and effective PM with C Rajgopal acharya as titular Governor General for a couple of years till 1952, when Indian parliament became effective under the new Constitution.

It is significant to quote from CF Andrews ‘Great Men of India, Jawahar Lal Nehru writes in another remarkable passage about himself, “I have been a queer mixture of East and West, out of place everywhere, at home nowhere. Perhaps my thoughts and approach to life are more alien to what is called Western than Eastern, but India clings to me as it does to all her children, in unmeasurable ways. I cannot get rid of my past inheritance or my recent acquisition. They are both part of me and though they help me both in the East and West, they west in me a feeling of spiritual loneliness, not only in public activities but life itself. I am stranger and alien in the west. I can not be of it. But my own country also, sometimes. I have an exile feeling.”

Nehru depended on Rajaji’s advice as he regarded Rajaji as his closest friend, guide and associate in the entire hierarchy of congress government as well as congress party.

But it will appear strange that after a year or so Nehru sent Rajaji as chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. A former head of state, first Indian Governor General being shifted out of Delhi to far off Madras was something CR could not stomach. Soon he left the congress party and Nehru and found his though short live Sawtantera Party.

That was not all Dr. Rajendra Prasad the first elected President of Indian Republic under new constitution was not given the respect due to the Head of Democratic Republic though Dr. Rajendra Prasad was orthodox Hindu and Pandit Nehru a progressive Indian, not much of a Hindu. Their differences come to limelight when Dr. Prasad opposed the Hindu Code Bill sponsored by Dr. Ambedkar, the then law Minister and Pandit Nehru supported the Hindu Code Bill even saying that in getting the Hindu code Bill passed involved his prestige. But because of opposition from vast majority of Hindus who were orthodox and were led by RSS, the bill could not to be passed in the constituent Assembly. As a result Dr. Ambedkar resigned from the cabinet.

As Nehru had even opposed the election of Dr. Rajendra Prasad as President of India their differences increased to somewhat dislike for each other. With the demise of Sardar Patel in 1950 December, Nehru felt free and independent of any restraint, direct or indirect, from any other congress leaders in Party or Government as Sardar Patel was the only the leader who had large following in congress though he was Home Minister and Minister of states. So long as Patel was alive Nehru was virtually reduced in status, though a PM, as Minister of External Affairs with virtually no interference or advice in connection with integration of princely status and more particularly Police Action in Hyderabad.

Guha’s remarks on the President of India’s visit to Somnath Temple, which had been destroyed many times by the Mughal invaders and rulers, show the extent of differences amount of disrespect that Nehru had now cultivated against Dr. Rajendra Prased: “when the President of India chose to dignify temples consecration with his presence, Nehru was appalled. He wrote to Prasad not to participate in the ‘spectacular opening of the Somenath temple (which) unfortunately had a number of implications’. But Prasad disregarded the advice and went to Somnath. Although he was a Hindu, said Prasad at Somnath. ‘I respect all religions and on occasions visit a church, a morque, a dargah and a gurudwara’.

Like Rajaji who was sent to Madras as CM uncrumoniously so Dr. Rajendra Prasad was not given second term as President and not provided a befitting residence after vacating Rastrapati Bhawan, had to leave for Patna without a farewell befitting First President of India.

After that Nehru made his daughter Indra Gandhi Congress President . Her first undemocratic act was to organise mass upsurge against first Comminist government of EMS Nambudripad in Kerala to force him to resign. It is written that after the EMS Govt was dismissed she asked American government through US Ambassador to compensate her party with millions of dollars to fight another election to keep these Communists in Kerala down and out.

Thus Nehru groomed his daughter and had he lived for a few more years he might have given her more responsibility in Party and Government. It is in this light that after Lal Bahadur Shastri’s brief Prime Ministership, she became an obvious choice of congress Party to become Prime Minister. In this way Jawahar Lal Nehru laid the foundation of dynastic rule in centre and in states. This dynastic rule politics has done great harm to India and Indian democracy.

As I have explained earlier Nehru considered himself at least half western in thoughts, words and to an extent in his deeds. That is why he could not adjust with the cent per cent Indians in upbringing and culture like Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Sardar Patel.

Nehru accepted socialism and tried to implement so called Socialist Pattern of Society which in due course degenerated into what was being called ‘Inspector Raj’. Half hearted attempt to implement Marxist Socialism was bound to fail as vast majority did not know about Marxism or socialism. They only knew about Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of Ahimsa. Some followed revolutionary philosophy of Bhagat Singh and Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. Accordingly Socialist Pattern of Society, instead of improving the lot of farmers and organised and unorganised labouress, made them subservient to Rationing Inspectors and the like. There was no progress in Industry and Agriculture. Rather both Agriculture and Industry deteriorated. Thus India under Nehru’s Socialist Pattern of society instead of moving forward went backward, economically, socially and politically.

Similarly Nehru’s efforts to organise non- aligned nations with Tito of Yugoslavia and Nasser of Egypt and the policy of Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai ultimately failed.

In 1962 there was Chinese aggression, which was absolutely unprovoked, into North Eastern border of India called NEFA and ladakh. Chinese troops were advancing and capturing vast areas when Nehru made a statement that I had asked Indian Army “to kick Chinese out” and he proceeded to Ceylon, little realizing the consequences of such an incursion into Indian territory which had never occurred before. Within a fortnight Chinese troops overran entire NEFA and reached the boundary touching Assam. Then Chinese dictated terms of withdrawal of Chinese troops after making hundred of Indian soldiers prisoners.

In Military History of India and South Asia, it is stated as under: “After defeat of India in 1962 at the hand of China and after China dictated the terms of withdrawal from vast areas of NEFA and some areas of Ladakh, Pandit Nehru now decided to approach USA for air cover”. Writing to President John F Kennedy he described the situation as “really desperate” and requested immediate dispatch of 12 squadrons of fighter aircrafts—–for Nehru who had talked so much on non alignment, it was a crushing acceptance of failure.

Though President Kennedy, on the recommendation of US Ambassador in India John Kennedy Galbrith, a renowned Harward Economist who gave twist to USA’s a Free Market Economy, agreed to Nehru request for a financial aid and arms and sanctioned “supply of a million rounds for machine guns, 40,000 land mines and 1,00,000 mortar rounds. Though USA was not in favour of India because of India’s close contacts and relations with USSR, many senators opposed giving military and financial aid to Nehru who was a proclaimed socialist and to a great extent anti-American in opposition to Pakistan who had always been pro American. Senator Russel in particular opposed any sort of assistance to India. His opposition to Kennedy helping India militarily got wide publicity in USA as senator Russel was the chairman of senate Armed Forces Committee.

This was and the humiliating defeat of Indian Army had weakened Nehru’s position not only in USA and rest of world where he was known as champion of non alignment, but also in India and Congress Party itself. As a result decision making had been shifted from Prime Minister’s house to the congress Parliamentary Party. Inspite of hostile criticism by Senetor Russel and many others Kennedy and Galbrith, though upset, continued to give moral support to Nehru and India.

Chinese aggression and defeat of Indian Army was a great and unbearable shock to Pandit Nehru who had treated himself not only undisputed leader of India but of entire non-aligned world. Krishna Menon, Nehru’s favourite Defence Minister had to resign. Jawahar Lal Nehru himself could not bear this shock and in frustration and shame, within two years he scummbed to this unbearable shock and passed away in 1964.

However Nehru made an emotional speech in 15th August 1947 which is considered very touching and is renowned not only in India but throughout the English speaking world. India’s Prime Minister said: at midnight of ushering 15th August and India’s Independence; “At the stroke of midnight hour, when he world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom—-a moment which comes rarely in history when we step out from the old to the new, when as age ends and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed finds utterance”.

There is no doubt that Nehru was one of the renowned leaders of India’s struggle for independence. Few nations have had leaders of such acknowledged intelligence as Jawahar Lal Nehru Dr. Rajendra Prasad, C Rajagopal Acharya —-Jawahar Lal Nehru served three full terms in office, (as Prime Minister) a privilege denied to any other Prime Minister of India or abroad in a democracy.

Thus despite all his shortcomings because of love for Western Culture and not considering Mountbatten as titular Governor General and not being able to take strong action in Kashmir and Hyderabad fovouring his sister Vijay Laxmi Pandit and daughter Indira Gandhi over others Jawahar Lal Nehru was a great and respected leader of India. He was pride of India like Gandhiji and will be remembered for ever. Even Ghandhiji had same shortcomings but these do not mitigate his status in India and the world. So Nehru, too, will be remembered always.

August 24, 2009 Posted by | Uncategorized | , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

On Love

Love is ability to sacrifice ones own interest for the one whom one loves; Love is to feel for one loves; Love is subline feeling of wishing always good of one whom one loves; Love is to ignore the faults of one whom one loves; Love is to have joy and pride in the success and happiness of one whom one loves; Love is to suffer silently and deliberately for the well being of one whom one loves. Love above all is subline sentiment that is embedded in the nature of the man for excellence, who can sacrifice his own personal interest, his own welfare, his own ego for the one whom one loves. Love is spontaneous and selfless without regard to any contraction or even praise or acknowledgment.

If one can have this quality of selflessness and feeling for others then alone one can love – his parent who have given him life and brought him up after unknown sacrifices; his brothers and sisters who have during his childhood and thereafter shared his joys and sorrow; his friends in school, college and neighborhood who have stood by him through thick and thin; his beloved who as ones first love in adolescent years, whether one has succeeded in having the beloved as life companion or not, his wife who has given him love and children whether one has loved her before marriage or not; his children whether they are healthy or not, beautiful or not, intelligent or not, successful or not. Love for ones country, culture and mother tongue is as significant as any other love, whether the country is rich or poor whether it had given him much, little or nothing. Similarly love for mother language and culture, whether the language is developed or not whether culture is superior or equal to other cultures of the world.

To sum it up: love is absence of greed so that one is not envious or jealous of others wealth, property or high status in society. Love is absence of ego, feeling that one is supreme in one aspect of life or other. Love is absence of hatred even for known bad characters.

Thus love is greatest virtue; it is doing greatest good to those whom one loves. Love of humanity and help to needy human beings is greatest religion and highest morality.

As parents are the real and only gods, at least gods on the earth,so parents love for children is the most selfless. They will not eat till their children have eaten, they will not sleep till their tiny tots have slept. The starving mother will feed her child from her dry breasts even though she has not taken a morsel for days. If children fall and get hurt, the physical pain is of the child but psychological pain, which is even far more severe, is of parents. If children are away for more than usual time the parents suffer the pain of separation and start feeling the worst even though children might be playing in a neighborhood home, or little distance away.

Similarly, children who have imbided love affection in good measure love their parents, particularly old parents, helpless parents suffering from so many infirmities, and other sufferings due to loss of property, source of independent income, insecurity etc.

August 24, 2009 Posted by | Uncategorized | , , , , | Leave a comment

1962- 64

In early 1962, though we were living in one room of a government quarter, we felt very much honoured that the greatest Punjabi Novelist, Sardar Nanak Singh, who was father – in law of my younger sister, lived with us for a couple of days. He had come from Amritsar to accept Sahitya Academy Award to be given to first Punjabi Writer. Here are some feelings of respect and reverence the I expressed in those days.

Nanak Singh, father of Punjabi novel, was a born genius. So long as the planet is there, Punjab is there; Punjabi speaking people are there, he will be remembered with reverence. Nanak Singh was a rare literary star that appears once in hundreds of years. He was one amongst galaxy of literary giants like Kalidas, Shakespeare, Tolstoy, Dickens, Tagore and Bernard Shaw.

Nanak Singh was born Hans Raj in a petty grocer’s family in Peshawar Cantonment (now in Pakistan) but lost both his parents in childhood. He had only primary education that too on Urdu. But he never gave up his devotional and literary pursuits. He joined Blind Devotional Musicians Group who used to recite Gurbani and Keertan daily in Gurdwara Sri Guru Singh Sabha, Peshawar Cantt. Under this solemn influence Hans Raj, who had become devotee of Guru Nanak by hearth and soul became a Sikh and was baptized as Nanak Singh.

Hereafter the genius in him started unfolding. He self-learnt Punjabi in Gurmukhi Script so as to read Sikh Scriptures direct from the Holy Guru Granth Sahib and started composing short religious hymns in praise of Sikh Gurus, known as “SATGURU MEHMA”, which made him famous as Nanak Singh Kaveeshar throughout Punjab and NWFP.

Blessed with fame and inspired by Universal brotherhood teachings of Guru Nanak, this young Sikh in early 20’s got the enlightenment, the like of which Siddhartha got and transformed into Buddha. In his zeal to preach what he had learnt and dreamt, he shifted to Amritsar, the Mecca or more appropriately, Vatican of Sikhs. Here Nanak Singh taught himself besides Punjabi and Urdu, Hindi, Bengali and some English. From here his novel writing imbibed divinity and seems to have been blessed by God Almighty Himself. The pace of his work was truly incredible, almost machine like. In the remaining 50 years of his active life Nanak Singh gifted t the World and Punjabi language in particular as many as 40 novels and innumerable short stories and poems. His epic novel “PAVITAR PAPI” was made into a successful motion picture by his ardent admirer, Bakraj Sahani while another epic “IK MIAN DO TALWARAN” was awarded the prestigious Sahitya Academy Award in 1962. Besides novels, he tried his hand in short stories, essays and poems including a heart rendering compositions in Jallianwala Bagh massacre, entitled “Khooni Visakhi”.

William Shakespeare wrote 37 comedies, tragedies and histories during his literary career. A dozen of which like ‘Julius Ceaser’, ‘Merchant of Venice’ and ‘As you like it’ became famous and male him famous during his life time. The abiding and universal themes of love, friendship, sacrifice as in ‘Romeo Juliet’ and greed for a pound of flesh as in ‘Merchant if Venice’ found ample expression in Nanak Singh’s novels. While PAVITAR PAPI & “EK MIAN DO TALWARAN” are distinguished by tragic themes of supreme sacrifice, unmitigated greed and poverty was the theme of Paap di Khatti which was also a reflection in rapidly altering values of contemporary society.

Like Charles Dickens Nanak Singh had great understanding of human nature especially of young and poor who were helpless and were exploited by selfish and greedy. His novels like CHITTA LAHU are in the same league as Dicken’s “A tale of Two Cities” and “David Copperfield”.

Nanak Singh’s IK Mian Do Talwaran for which he got Sahitya Academy Award in 1962 compares well with Tolstoys monumental work War and Peace. Like Tolstoy, who became fed up with rituals of orthodox church and fundamentalism in practice Nanak Singh too, pointed out with zeal the evils of fundamentalism and selfishness in our society. Like Tolstoy Nanak Singh revolted against these evils in his novels and shorts stories.

In 1962, I vividly remember when Nanak Singh came to New Delhi to receive Sahitya Academy Award and stayed for a couple of days with us in Government Quarter in Kidwai Nagar, New Delhi. Even in those days we felt that it was not Nanak Singh novelist but some saint who had graced our humble abode to share wit us food and thoughts. So we sat at his feet and fathered all the blessings showered on us through his lips, his eyes, and gestures, as invaluable treasure to last us our like time.

Nanak Singh was a rare personality, not only selfless but self-effacing. Throughout his life he shunned publicity and politicians. Even though he went to jail during Gurudwara movement, he never sought to make political capital out of it or even refer to it in passing as a sacrifice. Nanak Singh was simplicity, honesty and decency personified. May we follow some of the foot-prints which he, like other great men , left on the sands of time.

Unfortunately, though Punjabi is spoken by 120 million people living in India, Pakistan and abroad, it is not written and read by more than 30 million. Had it been learnt spoken and honoured by all Punjabis all over the word, a literary genius and a prolific writer like Nanak Singh would have hor Nobel Prize like Rabindranath Tagore and George Bernard Shaw and international recognition.

According to Bhai Jodh Singh eminent writer in the field of Punjabi novel, Nanak Singh’s contribution is more than any other Punjabi writer. He has not bought cheap publicity depicting in his novels sexy life. The romance depicted is social and even scared.

For the popularity of Punjabi Novels of Nanak Singh it is apt to conclude with tribute paid by Kartar Singh Duggal an eminent writer and MP. “I started going through (Nanak Singh) novels and went in reading up to 20 novels which opened nu eyes. I felt that I was sitting at the feet of a great teacher. Your language is sweet like honey and well polished.”

August 24, 2009 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Sardar Patel

Sardar Patel, unlike Gandhi and Jawahar Lal had roaring practice as a brilliant lawyer thus in a few years he saved enough money and booked a passage through Thomas Cooke for UK to become Bar – at- Law. But that was not to be through for the time being. His elder brother Vithal Bhai Patel asked him to allow him to go to UK. Just to become Bar-at-Law. As initials of both brothers were the same VB (Vallabhh Bahi and Vithal Bhai) Vithal Bhai traveled to UK in the same ticket, as Sardar Patel had lot of regard for his elder brothers being from a peasant family. This showed how selfless was Sardar Patel to start with and continued till his demise. Now I quote from the book by Mr. Chapra “Sardar of India”

“When his brother returned to India after completing his studies in London, Vallabh Bhai left for the UK in 1970 and joined the Middle Temple Inn. With his meager resources, he had to work hard in London too and would walk about 14 kms daily to go to and return from the library in the middle temple when he was already 35. The Sardar won a prize of £50 and got a first-class and first position in the finals in the Inns of Court, London. Being the son of a peasant, Vallabh bhai was eager to go to the villages around London and acquire first-hand knowledge which he did after his examination was over. He returned to India with flying colors. In spite of an attractive offer made by the then Chief Justice of Bombay, of a Professorship at the then Chief Justice of Bombay, of a Professorship at the Government Law School (the college was known as ‘school’), Vallabh bhai preferred to come over to Ahemdabad.”

Sardar Patel had decided to do for Ahemdabad and thereafter for Independence movement under Gandhiji though he did not agree with the Mahatma in every aspect. He devoted more time, after declining professorship of Law College to municipal administration with a view to improve. He thereafter took stand against two arrogant British Commissioners and got them removed. These officers were Mr Shillidy and Masscy.

His spirit of service for people was remarkable. It came from his heart and soul in this connection I would like to quote Shri G.V Malvankar another prominent social worker and followers of Gandhiji and his non-violent movement for India’s freedom from British Rule.

“His spirit of service and devotion to duty were of such an exceptional character that as chairman of the municipal sanitary committee, he struck to his residence in the city of Ahmedabad when plague (1917) was raging and refused to move out for personal safety. His was a familiar figure moving in the streets of Ahmedabad, getting the sewers cleaned and the plague-stricken areas disinfected.”

Sardar Patel’s unique contribution to India’s unity and unification, as never before, was (1) Integration of 562 Princely states with newly independent India and (2) successful intervention in Kashmir when all the others leader were indifferent and seemed helpless against British intrigues and for Pakistan Jinnah not only wanted to integrate Kashmir with Pakistan but waited and tried to win over Maharaja of Jodhpur and Nawab of Bhopal with all types of temptations like a corridor, and financial help, arms and use of Karachi port.

Failure of Jinnah and success of Sardar Patel is described by K.M. Punnikar who was Prime Minister of Bikaner in letter dated 7th September 1947 to Sardar Patel that your understanding and vision killed the dispersion of most of the princes and gave us support when we most required it and not only India but the states as a whole owe you a deep gratitude.”

It was indeed a miracle that the Sardar was able to achieve the merger of about 562 princely states comprising one-third of the total area of India into the Indian union within a short span of less than two years. The obstacles seemed to be insurmountable when he took over the reins of office.

Later on Mountbatten used to observe, according to Hudson, “I am glad to say” that “Nehru has not been put in charge of the new states department, which would have wrecked everything. Patel, who is essentially a realist and very sensible, is going to take it over…..”

A few days before 15 August 1947, hostile combination of Indian Princes sprang up with a plan to protect the Pakistan frontier from the border of Sindh to the borders of Bhopal on the one side and to the Surat District on the other. It was indeed a bold and formidable move but the Sardar was able to break this combination; each element, to quote K.M. Munshi, “was segregated and destroyed”.

On the success of his mission Sardar in a statement before the Constituent Assembly on 12th October 1949 observed:

The great ideal of geographical, political and economic unification of India, an ideal which for centuries remained a distant dream and which appeared as remote and as difficult of attainment even after the advent of Indian independence was consummated by the policy of integration.

The story of the merger of the Indian states into the Indian union has been told by the Sardar’s right – hand man, V.P. Menon, in his well – known work, The story of the Integration of Indian Stated and need not be repeated here. “Suffice to say that the Sardar’s India was greater in size than that of Samudragupta, Asoka and Akbar and the writ of the Center wielded an authority and respect never dreamt of by these greatest of Indian rulers.”

Nizam of Hydrabad supported by Razakars and Pakistan had ambition of being ruler of an independent country duly being recognized by Pakistan, Britain and India. But Sardar Patel was determined to end Nizam’s dream and integrated Hyderabad fully like any other princely state. He called Major General Choudhary asking him straight question as how many days of military (Police) action would be required to finish Razakar resistance and integrate Hyderabad with rest of India. General cordially said at the most a week.

Thus Hyderabad was made part of Indian union within 5 days and Major General Choudhary was honoured as military governor of Hyderabad and Sardar Patel when he visited Hyderabad after a few days stayed with General Choudhary who felt greatly honured.

As in the case of integration of Hyderabad there was division in the cabinet in case of Kashmir Mountbatten had sympathies with Pakistan as he was friendly with Churchill and was influenced by his thinking. The chief of army of India, General Bucher was reluctant and was against sending Indian Army in Kashmir. It was only Sardar Patel who was, as in the case of Hyderabad determined to send Indian Army to Kashmir for Kashmir’s accession and integration with India.

In Hyderabad Hindus were in majority while in Kashmir it was quite different as Muslims were in majority in Kashmir. Hindus were in Majority in Jammu and Buddhist were in majority in Ladakh.

To solve the Kashmir problem there was a meeting under the chairmanship of Lord Mountbatten. From the biography of Vallabhbhai Patel, I quote below in length to clarify the role of Mountbatten, Bucher, Nehru and Patel.

“General Bucher asserted that resources available to him were so meager that military assistance to the state would not be possible. Lord Mountbatten exhibited studied diffidence. Panditji presented a picture of acute anxiety and deep concern. Sardar listened, did not utter a word.” He was a picture of calm equipoise. His silence was a strange contrast to a picture of defeatism and helplessness that otherwise pervaded in the meeting. “Suddenly Sardar moved in his seat and immediately in his gruff and resolute voice attracted everybody. He conveyed the following: “Look here, General, Kashmir must be defended at all costs and come what may, resources or no resources. You must do it and all assistance will be rendered by Government. This must, must and must be done. Do whatever you like, but do it…” The General wore a grim look. A ray of hope shot through me. The generals might have wished to demur, but Sardar quietly got up and saying that arrangements for ‘operation airlift’ would be ready by the next morning…defense of Kashmir thus was the result of Sardar’s decisiveness and determined will to implement the decision, whatever the odds.”

Sir Aurobindo, the great seer who had given up active politics and lived the life of a Karmayogi in Pondicherry, had rightly prophesied as early as December 22, 1946, in a remark to a query from his disciple. “Out of all of them. Patel is the only strong man.”

Along with General Bucher, Nizam was supported by many Britishers of the conservative party like Sir Walter Monckton and RA Butler who were on Churchill’s side. Butler emphasized that “Britain should press for the just claims of Hyderabad to remain independent”

Thus Sardar Patel’s achievements like the Police action in Hyderabad, sending Indian Army in Kashmir against opposition by Britishers and indifference of Nehru were more than any other Indian contemporary or past leader and rulers. Whole of India salutes the great Sardar and shall remember him for ever.

Nehru – Patel Controversy

Nehru was Prime Minister duly supported by Gandhi and all the Congress leaders and workers after independence of the country. After partition of India and creation of Muslim state of Pakistan, Patel wanted that Muslims of India should prove their loyalty to India but Nehru was of the opinion that it was the responsibility of Congress and the Government to make Muslims of India feel secure.

Though Nehru and Patel did not see eye to eye on many subjects and policy matters, it was ultimately Sardar Patel who advised all congress men to follow Nehru as Bapu appointed him as his successor and had even proclaimed him as such. It is the duty of all Bapu’s soldiers to carry out his bequest. I am not a disloyal soldier. It was Patel’s decency that prevented an open rupture between the two over Congress Presidency.

August 24, 2009 Posted by | India, Indian History | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Jinnah and Creation of Pakistan

Mohd Ali Jinnah the creater of Pakistan, who instigated communal riots, Muslims killing Hindus in Calcutta in 1946 and when he became the Governor General of Pakistan not only endorsed but encouraged the Muslims of West Punjab, in particular, to terrorize and even kill Sikhs and Hindus particularly the Sikh farmers and land owners in Lyalpur and Montgomery Dist which the Sikh farmers from East Punjab had turned into ‘Wheat Bowl’ of Pakistan by their hard work in two to three decades, so that Muslim farmers could occupy these fertile lands.
At the time of partition of India and creation of Pakistan only two states with Muslim majority were being ruled by Muslim League, Bengal and Sindh. At partition time Bengal and Punjab were divided, If NWFP had been offered the choice of independence or Pakistan it would definitely not joined Pakistan as is seen by the turmoil in NWFP and Baluchistan to this day after more than 60 years.
The great Calcutta Killings provoked by the Muslim League and its leader Mohd Ali Jinnah and Bengal Chief Minister Suhrawardy were responsible for the great and unprecedented Killing in peaceful Calcutta. Jinnah had said that to achieve our aim of getting Pakistan, ‘today we bid goodbye to Constitutional methods’ and August 16, 1946 was declared, Direct Action Day to instigate Calcutta Killing, a public holiday to give free hand to Muslim League hooligans to Kill Non-Muslims, Hindu and even Sikhs. Police and administration were absolutely inactive, non visible for the whole day so that Jinnah’s Words were put into action. That was the beginning of Partition Riots in which Lakhs of Hindus and Sikhs from West Pakistan in particular were killed and forced to leave their homes and farms and property and in retaliation Lakh of Muslims, too, were killed mostly in India, Punjab and mostly by Sikhs so that Killings of Hindus and Sikhs by Muslims of Pakistan come to an end.

Jinnah’s above Speech is in glaring contrast to his Speech of August 46. As it was too late and followers of Muslim League continued with their Killings for which Jinnah can not be absolved. In Contract Gandhi Ji Nehru and even Sardar Patel never instigated Hindus and Sikhs to Kill Muslims.

August 24, 2009 Posted by | Biography, India, Indian History, World, World History | , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments