Very few people in India, perhaps none abroad, know as to why General Dyer ordered massacre of innocent men women and children on April 13 1919, the Baisakhi day. Here are some important little known or unknown facts which resulted in the massacre of more than 500 and serious bullet injuries to more than 1500, mostly citizens of Amritsar who had gathered there to listen to Gandhi and other leaders against what Gandhi called “Devilish” piece of legislation ie. two Bills under Rowlett Act.
Arthur Herman, the author of Book “Gandhi and Churchill, describes the event before massacre of hundreds of innocent Indians gathered in Jallianwala Bagh as under:
‘ Winston Churchill told the House of Commons , “Never has there been a time when people (Indians) were more disposed to turn to courses of violence or show such scant respect for law and custom , tradition and procedure.” To ally the fears of men like Churchill Indian government officials decided to act.’
In February 1919, as the Defense of India Act was to expire six months after the war; two bills by Sydney Rowlett, reached the Legislative Council in Delhi; “an outery began. Even with every Indian member (of legislative council) voting against it the bills were passed in March and became law. The two bills contained two controversial provisions. One allowed judges to convict suspected terrorist or subversives without a Jury, the other sanctioned interning those same suspects without trial.”
Gandhi thought by supporting British war effort India would get independence (Swaraj) or at least Home rule. So Gandhi had enthusiastically supported the British Empire in their war against Germany. He even went so far as to recruit 20 able-bodied persons from each village in Gujarat and walked for hundreds of miles. At the end he could recruit only forty instead of more than a thousand. He justified his war effort to the annoyance of his close associate (Sardar) Patel, who refused to be a party to that effort of Gandhi, due to twist in his philosophy of Ahimsa- Annie Besant sarcastically called Gandhi “Recruiting sergeant” of British Empire. Even many villagers felt ashamed of their Gandhi’s support to British and left his meetings or showed their back.
Gandhi justified his pro British stand. Gandhi went so far as to say “Of all my activities I regard this (recruitment) as the most difficult and the most important.”
It is surprising that there is no mention of Gandhi being pro-British upto 1919 in the ‘Advanced History of India’ by Dr R C Majumdar and others, and also Gandhi going to many villages to recruit as soldiers for British-Indian Army and the sarcastic remark of Annie Besant, that Gandhi was “Recruiting Sergeant” for the British.
It is noteworthy that Gandhi’s pro-British views in 1914 to 1919 were in absolute contrast to Annie Besant’s views…. Annie Besant a British citizen who came to India and after seeing extreme poverty in villages and the conditions of vast majority of Indians, the repressive imperialist rule by the same British who were just and democratic in their own country, got so perturbed that she started ‘Home Rule India’ party. She wanted British to concede independence to India. She said “The moment of England’s difficulty is the moment of India’s opportunity.” But Gandhi differed with her and wanted India to support British war effort “unconditionally, spiritually and physically.” Lokmanya Tilak was released from jail after the 1st world war started in 1914. Tilak wanted like many other Indians British to concede ‘Home Rule’ to India, if not independence, just now. He therefore joined Annie Besant’s Party. As a result within one year, Annie Besant’s ‘Home Rule League’ had more than 60,000 full time members while “Indian National Congress had only 20,000 members.”
However after the end of war with Germany, British Government and in particular imperialist Winston Churchill went back from their promise of conceding Home Rule to Indians. This made Indian National Congress furious and Gandhi, too, felt betrayed by British. So he joined the independence movement of Congress and was going to address congress sponsored meeting at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, just, adjoining the Golden Temple the holiest Sikh Gurdwara. But on way Gandhi was taken out of train before reaching Amritsar, arrested and taken to Bombay. Punjab Government, as well as the British Government of Delhi kept this and Jallianwala massacre and meeting as top secret and did not let anyone know for couple of months.
In brief here is sequence of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre on 13th April 1919: Dyer entered (Amritsar) city central with a convoy of Armoured cars, his troops following. With him was the Amritsar town “crier.” He was shouting Dyers order in Hindi and Punjabi, English and Urdu. “On reaching his temporary headquarters, he learnt that a demonstration was under way in Jallianwala Bagh. He became furious, rather lost balance, at the “deliberate violation” of his order and immediately marched with “ninety Baluchis and Gurkhas towards Jallianwala Bagh where thousands of citizens had gathered to protest against the ‘devilish’ provisions of Rowlett Act. With Dyer were only four British, two officers and two security guards. ‘Otherwise there were no white soldiers at all.’
Arthur Herman describes the order of Dyer as under:
“Dyer barked the order to open fire. For ten minutes Dyer encouraged his soldiers to keep shooting unless bodies carpeted the ground.” Dyer and his troops had marched off after completing the massacre in Jallianwala Bagh leaving about a thousand dead and more than 2000 wounded. “Cries of pain and moans rose to the roof tops, bodies lined the entire wall around the Bagh. In many places the eyewitnesses said, they were ten feet deep.”
Where an English woman had been pulled from her bicycle, “Dyer ordered every citizen of Amritsar to ‘crawl on all fours”. He also set up a whipping post where any ‘native’ who refused to crawl was to be flogged.
‘Gandhi did not hear of this massacre and cruelty at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar ‘until June’. For almost two months there was complete clampdown. But as the news of worst ever British tyranny trickled there were unceasing protests and cries all over India.
Jallianwala Bagh massacre united all Indians against British, for the first time. Rabindra Nath Tagore returned his knighthood in protest, Gandhi returned his Kaisar-e Hind medal that was awarded for his pro-British services in South Africa. Jinnaha relinquished his membership of imperial legislature. Motilal Nehru collected his British furniture, suits and ties and made bonfire in his home garden and started wearing hand span Khadi clothes.
“The evidence was harrowing. Eyewitnesses who had watched the Jallianwala Bagh killings from the rooftops had seen “blood pouring in profusion…even those who were lying down were shot….Some had their head cut open, others had eyes shot and nose, chest, arms or legs shattered.” Some witnesses had sat all night in the Bagh with dying husbands and brothers. Others remembered the bodies of those who had been shot, but managed to escape, being left in the street for dead-including the bodies of small children.”
“At one point an entire wedding party had been flogged for failing to follow the crawling order.”
The pain and cries because of more than a thousand deaths in Amritsar “united Indians as never before and after”. More than any other events “Amritsar and its aftermath solidified national support for Indian independence.
About 600 years AD i.e. after Christ, came Hazrat Mohammad. He was born in Mecca in 570 AD. All those who consider Mohammad as their prophet and believe in Allah (God) are known as Muslims. To begin with his teachings had annoyed the people of Mecca. Many Muslims were ‘prosecuted’ as his followers grew in numbers and “rejected idol worship”. So, in 622 AD Mohammad and his followers emigrated to Medina. His and his followers emigration to Medina is known as Hijra and Muslim calendar starts from this year. When Mohammad and his followers had become strong they returned to Mecca victorious and “destroyed all the idols” in the shrines of Mecca, known as Kaaba. The inhabitants of Mecca accepted Mohammad as prophet and accepted Islam as their religion. Thereafter Islam spread to Arab and adjoining countries like Iraq, northern Africa and even some areas of Spain. Muslims encouraged learning, in medieval times, as part of their religious duty. The Muslims of those days translated into Arabic, the ancient knowledge of ancient world available only in Greek and Syriac languages.
After Mohammad died in AD 632, Abu Bakar his close companion was elected caliph (successor).
However the basic tenets of Islam, which have been ignored by many Muslims and others, are for harmony with followers of all religions and their prophets as the following extract from Quran will elucidate:
Say, we believe in Allah and in what has been revealed to us and what has been revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Issac, Jacob and the tribes of Moses and Jesus and the other prophets. We make no destination between them and to Allah we have surrendered ourselves (2-BC)
“O mankind, we have created you from a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes, that you might get to know one another. The noblest of you in Allah’s sight is who is most religious. Allah is all knowing and wise (49,13)
Christians are living in Christian or Christian dominated countries in peace and harmony with followers and worshipers of all religions, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jewish religion. To this day there are insignificant number of non-Muslims in Muslim dominated countries of Arabia, Iran and North Africa. There are millions of Hindus Sikhs and Muslims in USA, Canada, Britain and virtually in all the so called Christian or Christian dominated countries including Australia and New Zealand and now in Latin America, too.
For the peace in ever –changing world, which is now worried about climate change, all people of this planet must join hands, irrespective of their religions, to save this (planet) or the world otherwise entire humanity and all living beings on earth, in rivers oceans, and in air will suffer.
Gandhi had led agitation against registration of Indians who were required to be finger printed. Many were arrested including Gandhi for reentering Transval without registration. Gandhi had talks with General Smuts, Transval’s colonial secretary. After negotiations Gandhi, in exchange of release of all Indians agreed to the “condition” of finger printing to which earlier Gandhi had called “Block Act” that led to agitation by all Indians. This made many Indians furious for Gandhi’s surrender before General Smuts. Here is the violent reaction of some Indians to Gandhi’s surrender as detailed in book ‘Gandhi and Churchill’ by Arthur Herman (page 157)
“On Feb 10, 1908, Gandhi took a walk to the Johannesburg registration office in order to be the first to be voluntarily finger printed and registered as a resident Asian.” A man named Mir Alam stopped Gandhi as he had been active in Satyagraha Campaign that was led by Gandhi himself. “Where are you going?” he asked Gandhi in a cold tone, “I am going to take out a registration certificate” Gandhi replied and offered to take Alam with him. Instead Alam struck him across the face. Gandhi went sprawling, Sheing open his face on the sharp rock on the ground. Alam started kicking him and was joined by three or four others, cursing and shouting. Finally Gandhi’s friends managed to push them away, carried him to nearby shop and called for a doctor. “On March 5 he was again assaulted in a mass meeting in Durban….” The police had to escort Gandhi to safety” and much booing and hissing.
Young Gandhi who had studied Law in England was not able to defend his first case in an Indian court in fact he could not utter a word and walked out of court in agony. Then he left for South Africa when he helped many Indian businessmen in local courts. But finally where he led an agitation against what came to be called ‘Block Act’ he miserably failed, was beaten and humiliated. But young Gandhi did not loose heart, he stuck to his mission of getting justice for India from arrogant British imperialists. He had seen in England how the common British citizen was cared by law and justice but in contrast how, in India and to perpetuate their imperial rule the very Britishers became arrogant rulers without a bit of Western culture and justice that he had witnessed in England.
Before leaving for India, after the failure of Gandhi inspired and led agitation, he did not regret, as many Indians in South Africa expected. Gandhi was firm in his principles and philosophy of Ahimsa. All Gandhi could cling to was the most cherished faith as he put it “that all activity pursued with a pure heart is bound to bear fruit, whether or not such fruit is visible to us. Because of this philosophy of being of pure heart in whatever one does, Gandhi in due course, after leading Indian independence movement, through Ahimsa i.e. non violence, became to be known as Mahatma Gandhi.
Sidharath Gautam was born in Kapilavastu (now in Nepal) about 2000 years ago (about 563-483 B.C) He lived in a palace of his ruler father till the age of 29. In the meantime he had gone out of his own and seen miseries of starving poor and old man approaching death. He was moved and left his wife and child sleeping at midnight. He lived on few grains a day to feel the miseries of starvation. But after three years he felt he could not do anything for anybody in this poor health. So Sidharath Gautam started taking moderate diet. He traveled in search of enlightenment and reached outskirts of a village called Gaya and sat under a tree meditating and accepting food from a village girl. He decided to remain there unless he got answer to his quest. After prolonged meditation in a yogic pose he felt the cause of all miseries was desire and ignorance. Knowing these aspects leads to mental peace or as Buddhists call Enlightenment.
All Buddhists or those who accept Buddhism, as most of the Chinese, Japanese and South East Asians, besides a good number of Indians after Ashoka embraced Buddhism to renounce War, follow what is called three jewels of Budhism. Buddha Dharma ie, teachings and Sangha the community. Accordingly at the beginning of most gatherings of Buddhists, people recite three times. “I go to the Sangha for refuge” Buddhists greet each other “May all beings be happy.” Buddhist philosophy and teaching of Nirvana means to blow out flames of greed, hatred and ignorance. There are two sects or schools of Buddhism viz. Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism. Theravada Buddhism is almost extinct, except in Sri Lanka and some South Asian Countries and is called Southern Buddhism. Mahayana Buddhism means great vehicle. It is also called Northern Buddhism as it is mostly found in Northern Asia, China and Japan. For example Dalai Lama and his followers are Mahayana Buddhists. There is also a third category of Buddhists- Zen Buddhists. Zen means meditation. Zen Buddhists believe that everyday activities are ‘right material for meditation.’
In modern times because of colonialism by the West and consequent wars of occupation or colonization, most Buddhist countries like China and Japan, if not abandoned, diluted Buddhism by accepting Marxism as in China, and militant nationalism as in Japan and elsewhere. In India, Buddhism almost became extinct because of aggressive Muslim Conquests and rule for 700 years or more. India has now seen revival of Buddhism, to some extent, because of Dr Ambedkar, framer of Indian Constitution.
Change is law of nature. All religions, even communism of Marx, have changed a lot, particularly during 20th century because of industrial revolution followed by revolution in information technology. Buddhist ideology and name of Gautam Buddha will, however, inspire people and motivate them to be good human beings.
In 2007, Dr Rajendra Kumar Pachauri shared Nobel Prize as chairman of IPCC the International Panel on Climate Change a UN body established to look after global climate changes. This was the greatest day in the life of Dr. Pachauri, who rose to such a pinnacle of success, coming from a middle class family of India. In the year 2007 India, too, was proud of such an achievement by an Indian citizen, particularly in the field of climate change. But within less than 3 years IPCC and its Indian Chairman started getting criticized all over the world. How this rise and fall in such a short span happened?
Pachauri had early education in Lucknow. As he was very studious and encouraged by his parents he attained distinction in his studies and got PhD in Industrial Engineering from North Carolina State University and another PhD in Economics, by the age of 30 years only. His thesis for PhD in Economics was related to electricity demand as he was from childhood aware that India had severe shortage of electricity particularly in the villages. In his own words “I went on the oil, renewable energy, environmental effects then climate change.”
Did Pachauri commit Himalayan blunder in publishing without concrete proof, as a scientist concerned with climate change that by 2035 Himalayan glaciers will be no more. It implied that Ganga, Yamuna, besides Ravi, Satluj, Beas, Sindh and Jehlum will dry up and north India and Pakistan will turn into deserts worst than that of northern Rajasthan. It would be same for Tibet region and parts of Southern China. How could Pachauri, to an extent a noble laureate in climate change, come to such a drastic conclusion? Still, despite strictures all over the world, Pachauri is trying to justify his stand. Though as chairman of IPCC, he says he is not responsible for omissions and commissions in the documents on climate change presented to UN. Who else is responsible?
A French mathematician has made it clear as to what is science- “Science is facts, just as houses are made pf stones, so is science made of facts, but a pile of stones is not a house and a collection of facts is not necessarily science”. As a scientist Pachauri should have carefully analyzed the facts collected over a number of years and given a ‘scientific’ assessment about glaciers fast melting as well as other scientific conclusions:
Pachauri admitted that he had been informed in Nov 2009 by Pallavi Bagla in an interview with Science magazine, of the basic error in IPCC report on Himalayan glaciers. IPCC seems to have misused a Russian Scientists report that Himalayan glaciers could melt by 2,350, i.e., more than 340 years from now. But IPCC took it as 2035, i.e. within 25 years. Obviously this was a Himalayan blunder as Pachauri and IPCC were wrong in their assessment by more than 300 years, as pointed out by Prof Grahman Gogley of Ontario Trent University.
Another criticism of IPCC came from Holland. According to Dutch authorities only 26% of the country is below sea level while IPCC has stated in its 2007 report that 56% of Holland is below sea level. Accordingly Dutch government has asked the UN climate change Panel to “explain” this inaccurate claim by IPCC. This mistake may further cause embarrassment to IPCC and Pachauri because it has already committed a “Himalayan blunder” by reporting that Himalayan Glaciers will melt by 2035, thus drying India, Pakistan and China (Tibetan) rivers within 25 years from now.
Yet another fault in IPCC assessment has been highlighted by Sunday Times London on 7th Feb 2010 by Robert Watson chief scientist at Defra who was head of governmental Panel on climate change from 1997 to 2002. The IPCC claim was that rain fed crops production in North Africa will go down to 50 percent, because of global warming, by the year 2020. It has been said by other scientist that there is nothing in IPCC report to substantiate this claim. A British Government senior scientist has ‘warned’ the UN climate change Panel to tackle this blunder of IPCC and its chairman Pachauri.
In spite of Indian Governments and PM’s half hearted support for Pachauri the fact remains, as pointed out by Jennifer L Morgan director, climate and Energy Programme, Washington DC that “The IPCC” mistakenly published a figure that was not drawn from peer reviewed literature, disregarding its stringent review process. Any misstep in the IPCC process is therefore of concern and must be remedied. But it does not challenge the basis of climate change science or evidence of global warming that is already visible across the globe.”
The word Hindu is derived from river Sindhu. All those living around this river were called Hindus, originally by the Persians. Accordingly the country where Hindus lived came to be known as Hindustan. The place where Hindus live, where Hindu culture and Hindu language like Sanskrit and its offshoots like Hindi are spoken and written.
Hinduism is the oldest religion of the entire world. When the ancient caves of Mohenjodaro were unearthed in 1920’s, the first evidence of existence of Hinduism was also unearthed. It showed, Hinduism existed about 2000 to 3000 BC ie, 4000 to 5000 years ago. These also clearly showed the mode of worship of Hindu deities by the Hindus of ancient times.
It is significant to note that unlike the other major religions of the world, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. Hindu Dharma was not founded by one guru or prophet. Hinduism evolved and developed gradually over many thousand years. Similarly Hinduism has not one but many sacred books like Rigveda, Dharam Shastras, Ramayan and Mahabharat expounded and written at different during periods of history.
Ancient Hindus, as outlined in Rigveda, worshiped nature and great objects of nature like earth, sun and waters particularly the sacred rivers like Ganga and Yamuna and their joining together (Sangam) at Haridwar ie, abode of God. Millions of Hindus even in these days go to Haridwar to pray and take dip, reciting rhymes or simply Ram Ram.
Followers and philosophers of Upanishads (around 700 BC) named the Supreme spirit that created earth, sun, water and mountains as Brahma. Brahma was omnipresent but formless. Followers of ancient Hinduism could not worship a formless entity so they invented various gods in humans and animals which they started worshiping. There are three male deities of Hindus viz Brahma, the creator of the universe, Vishnu the preserver and Shiva who is both the destroyer and regenerator. These three deities are also called Trimurthi.
The female goddesses of Hindus are Saraswati, the goddess of learning and the arts and crafts, Laxmi, goddess of good fortune and wealth and Shakti also known as Parvati and is called mother goddess. It is Shakti who in her destructive mood is known as Durga or Kali (mostly worshiped in Bengal). The other deities that Hindus worship, and there are Temples or Mandirs in their names, are Ganesh and Hanuman. In South India, Kritkaya and Subramania are worshiped more than the north Indian deities.
All Hindus, just as followers of other religions like Buddhism, Islam, Christianity and Sikhism believe that it is only the body that dies, the soul from the body is reincarnated in another being and it never dies.
Ramayan and Mahabharat are the most prominent epics, that are read, recited and worshiped in modern times by all Hindus. Ramayan, as the name suggests, deals with the life of Lord Ram, Mahabharat with the life of Lord Krishna. In Gita (Geet Govinda) philosophy of Hinduism is apparent in dialogues between Krishna and Arjun. Here is one of the most significant passage from this epic, which will ever inspire all humanity even today:
“The raft of Knowledge ferries the worst sinner to safety.” Bhagwat Gita
“Knowledge is wealth” Vedas
Devotion and Ahimsa are the two main tenets of Hindu philosophy. Devotion in Hinduism means worship of chosen deity, chanting its name like Ram Ram or Jai Jai Ram. Doing good deeds, after visiting and praying in the chosen temple, like giving food to the hungry and helping poor and needy. Devotion’s ultimate aim is merger of soul in deity.
The other important tenet of Hinduism is Ahimsa. Ahimsa means non-injury to others, human as well as animals, because all living creatures have soul. It is now known as non-violence. Mahatma Gandhi made it driving force for struggle for independence of India from British rulers in early 20th century. Non-violence made, British to quit India in 1947. This philosophy has become relevant in the world to end imperialism or to get equality for coloured with the whites. This philosophy of non-violence and its success facilitated for the first time a coloured American (Obama) becoming President of white dominated USA.
It is pertinent to state that during 20th Century, because of the British policy of Divide and Rule and encouragement to Muslim League to fight for a Muslim dominated country of their own when they quit India, a sect of Hindus like Rss transformed itself, to an extent, abandoning Ahimsa ie, non-violence. These Hindus emulated Bhagat Singh and Raj Guru and later Netaji Subhash Bose, who being a Hindu differed with the Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of non violence and took arms as leader of INA to compel Britishers to quit India. But vast majority of Hindus, particularly because of Vajpayee, founder of BJP, still believe in Ahimsa.
Basic purpose of brief analysis of Hinduism and Hindu philosophy from ancient times to present day is to emphasize that Hinduism does not advocate violence against followers of any other religion. Hinduism and Hindus have been peaceful for thousands of years. For last 1000 years or so they have suffered silently but have not, as a religious philosophy, indulged in violence even in retaliation. They have largely followed the Hindu philosophy of devotion and ahimsa for their own and others well being for peace and harmony.
It is not Obama alone the current President of USA, but chiefly his predecessors, particularly George Bush who is to be blamed for imminent failure of USA’s intervention in Afghanistan and Iraq. It seems to be writing on wall. America is almost committed to withdraw its and NATO troops fighting in Afghanistan and possibly in Iraq before the end of 2010. American intervention to finish violent Taliban had become necessary because the very Taliban who were creation of USA with the assistance of Pakistan, to push out Russian Communists who had converted Afghanistan into a communist state. Withdrawal and expulsion of Russian troops was mainly due to courage and fighting capacity of dedicated Talibans. Thereafter Taliban turned to capture power in Afghanistan and push out the Americans, too. With a view to establish pro-American and Anti Communist government in Kabul American intervention got intensified. Talibans did not and could not tolerate that in place of Russian dominance there should be American dominance in Afghanistan.
Talibans not only resisted American and so called NATO troops, they started killing all those Afghans who were pro-American or had become power hungry to rule Afghanistan with American support and without Taliban participation or help. Thus besides thousands of US and NATO troops having been killed, lakhs of Afghans, many women and children, have perished in this fratricidal war of Talibans against their own Afghans, through suicide bombing and other war like attacks.
Even when Americas war of intervention in Afghanistan was going on, George Bush, US President decided to intervene in Iraq on the plea that Iraq was preparing nuclear weapons. Though this view of George Bush had no validity. Even the UN sponsored team that was sent to Iraq did not support this view of George Bush. Yet George Bush in 2003 sent American Army to Iraq to destroy their military and nuclear capability. As a result in 2003 USA sent its troops to finish Iraqi President Sadan and establish a pro American Government in Baghdad. America succeeded in their aim but the war in Iraq has continued for seven years.
Consequences of both the interventions of USA under the aegis of NATO, earlier in Afghanistan and in 2003 in Iraq, seem to have been utter failures in achieving American purpose of establishing with American help so called democratic governments. Both the attempts have failed and so USA is facing imminent failure.
It is surprising that USA has not learnt lesson from its gigantic failures in China and thereafter in Vietnam. In China, against Mao Tse Tung’s communists, America supported Chiangkai Shek who ultimately ran out of mainland China and with American support became ruler of Chinese off-share island of Taiwan.
Similarly Americans refused to learn lesson from their utter or worst failure for intervention in Vietnam against Ho Chi Minh’s government. For quite a long time America used all types of weapons and scratched earth policy, and carpet-bombing but ultimately USA had to quit when eighty thousand American soldiers had died. The humiliating end was marked by America taking away its last soldiers and diplomats through Helicopters from the roof of American Embassy.
The above review points out that though, as a last resort Americans are trying to integrate with Karzai Government in Kabul the so called, comparatively non-combatant Talibans. This policy of dividing Talibans is likely to meet with failure. Thus American intervention in both Afghanistan and Iraq faces imminent failure.
On January 30, 2010, Hillary Clinton US Sec of State gave a disappointing statement about possibility of good Taliban getting integrated. She said “we are not going to really (get) bad guys, because really bad guys are not going to renounce violence and agree to re-enter society.” Such a firm statement is likely to discourage even those who were expected to leave Taliban Al-Quaida and join Karzai.
Washington Post and ABC News had asked a simple question as to how much confidence they had in President Obama for making right decisions for the American nation. ‘A majority 53% gave two dismal of the four responses. “None at all “had tripled in just one year from 9 percent to 27%”. In addition democrats had lost Kennedy’s seat in senate after almost 70 years. These were two bad omens for Obama and his Presidency, after one year.
Thus in Afghanistan America’s hope of dividing Talibans and getting a section integrated in Karzai’s government in Kabul has been falsified. In Iraq, too, there is no hope of America succeeding and firmly establishing pro-American democratic government in view of almost daily suicide bombing. Latest being in Karbla where a woman suicide bomber killed more than 50 and injured more than 150. Thus failure of American intervention both in Afghanistan and Iraq seems imminent.