Without help in any form from USA or other countries India won Independence in 1947 after a struggle of 100 years from 1847 when British East India Company Conquered Ranjit Singh’s Sikh Empire mainly through British conspiracy with the clandestine assistance of Dogras Dhyan Singh who was Prime Minister and his brother Gulab Singh. From 1847 to 57 British rule was in turmoil and there was uprising of 1857 what British called revolt and India considered First war of Independence. British succeeded by employing the entire then Indian allied troop headed by British Army with latest weapons, canons and trained artillery. After prolonged struggle Muslim rule of almost a thousand years ended and the last Mughal King Bahadur Shah though nominal, confined to Red Fort, was taken prisoner and extradited from India.
Next most historic event was Jallianwala Bagh massacre by the British General O’Dyer killing more than a thousand unarmed citizens, men, women and children who had gathered to listen to Indian leaders. This cruelty of British was turning point in India’s fight for independence. Even Gandhi who was till then pro British joined and ultimately led the independence movement though through non-violent and peaceful means. Leaders like Subhash Chader Bose wanted Independence by all means. Bose was elected Congress President but as Gandhi opposed it he resigned. He went to Germany and then during 2nd world war beginning to fight for India’s Independence through Indian National Army.
Had Allies not been supported by USA, Britain would have been conquered by Germany as France and all the European countries. Thus, British after 1945 war losses in men and material realized that it would not be possible to rule such a vast country like India. So Indian independence movement both of Gandhi and Subhash Bose succeeded and in 1947 India won Independence. This is in brief how India won Independence despite Churchill’s opposition which resulted in partition of India and creation of Pakistan. Nehru became Prime Minister of India and Sardar Patel Home Minister. Gandhi who had become Mahatma opposed partition of India and in view of partition riots initiated by Pakistan under Jinnah right from August 47. Thus Mahatma Gandhi started fast on 15th August 1947 instead of celebrating independence of India, by prolonged struggle spread over 100 years. He was ready to go to Pakistan for which he paid with his life.
During Nehru era from 1947 to 1964 and for some years thereafter India had close relations with USSR and Nehru followed Socialist pattern of Society and controlled economy almost banning private enterprise. This policy became injurious to India’s growth and economy as it became more of inspector rule and hub of corruption all over. India’s GDP during this period of State control of economy remained static. It is India’s defeat in 1962 against Chinese aggression in North East of India that Nehru woke up to the horrors of following a communist USSR and approached USA for assistance, which reluctantly USA gave though with conditions. Here after era a mixed economy started. After Nehru’s demise in 1964 because of the shock of defeat of 1962. Hereafter relations with capitalist countries particularly USA started developing fast. This is how communist influence declined and American cooperation and influence increased since 1964 onward.
Earlier US President Clinton had visited India. It too, was a remarkable visit as he was very popular at home and abroad especially in India. But President Obama’s visit in November 2010 after commonwealth games was very significant as well as memorable. He promised, among other economic, social and agricultural cooperation that India deserves to be permanent member of UN Security Council, like USA. UK, France, Germany and China. For this announcement he got tremendous applause both from the government and people of India. Here are some extracts and valiant points from his speeches and agreements.
President Obama’s India’s visit along with his wife to India was historic in many respects. In one of his speeches he welcomed India’s rise in comity of nations as a great and fast growing democratic country. He said ‘ I believe that in one interconnected world increased commerce between the connected states and India can be and will be a win-win proposition for both nations ‘There was business and entrepreneurship conference between more than 100 US businessmen that accompanied Obama and India’s top businessmen in equal number to discuss and finalize trade agreements between two countries.
There was agreement between Reliance Power and US Exim Bank to provide about 5 billion US dollars in financial support for development of up to 8000 mw of gas powered electricity generating units and in addition up to 900 mw solar and wind renewable energy facilities. Spice jet of India and Boeing of USA concluded an agreement for the sale of 30 B 737-800 aircrafts for the commercial use by Spice jet. In the sphere of Railway improvement in India, there was agreement to manufacture and supply 1000 diesel locomotive in 10 years, about 100 such locomotives every year. This will make Indian Railways more efficient and modern. To help India provide houses for the poor, an agreement for production of equipment and manufacture of pre fabricated house has been reached. There are many other MOU’S and agreements, details of which cannot be given in this brief survey. Support of USA to India is vital as India is no more dependent on Russia or any other country for its development and rise as a big power in all spheres in another 10 to 20 years.
It is the first time that a President of France has paid a visit to India which is significant, if not more, than visits by American President Obama or any other foreign Head of State to India in recent times. Despite unprecedented crises in Parliament of India, during his visit French President got warm welcome by both the PM of India as well as Chairperson of ruling UPA and opposition leader in Lok Sabha, Sushma Swaraj, who was amongst the few ministers invited to dinner hosted by PM Manmohan Singh. Media gave befitting coverage for all the days when French President with his wife was in India. It was really a new era in Indo-French friendship as well as economic and even for stronger defense ties. In many other fields too like use of solar energy for which French firms have promised big investments. Indo- French relations in trade and cooperation in food processing will henceforth be noteworthy. Indian people will anxiously wait to see remarkable cooperation in trade and increase in visit of students between India and France, as never before. So far India had economic and social relations with USA and UK; and USSR before its breakup.
Latest survey indicates that fiscal position of USA is worse than that of Europe despite recession all over the Europe and USA for the last two years. It is also known that in Europe Spain and Italy are in bad shape so far as their economies are concerned. France, Germany, UK and Baltic state are reasonably better off and are now in a position to improve. That is the reason that President Sarkozy of France is so confident that he has agreed to help India in overcoming certain economic and social problems. Here are some details of the agreements between French President and Indian PM.
India has been purchasing from France, since 1985, Mirage aero planes. During Kargil war in 1999, Indian Air Force used these French planes to quell Pakistani aggression. India was then able to drop laser guided bombs as well as conventional bombs. Thus two mirage squadrons flew more than 500 sorties in about 200 strikes mission during this limited war. After crushing defeat of Pakistan by India in 1975 war Pakistan appeared to be preparing for some sort of revenge. So India was in hurry to equip its air squadrons. India wanted to purchase fighter aircrafts from France, which were small and also known to be capable of repeated sorties. India therefore purchased 76 single seater and 4 double seater aircraft from France. By 1998 India France strategic defense partnership came into existence. As India has a vast coast, it’s thinking of purchasing submarines from France to guard its coast effectively.
There is equally significant cooperation between India and France in the sphere of agriculture. France is prepared to double the exchange of agriculture and food products after Sarkozi’s recent visit. This will give boost to Indian agriculture as well as food processing techniques France evidently has better techniques and experience. In this connection it will not be out of place to assert that India had pledged good relations with USA, since 1962 war with China, but neither USA nor UK or any other European Country offered defense equipments and fighter planes to India. Prior to dismemberment of USSR it was USSR that supplied India MIG aero planes and aircrafts which India was not able to use in Kargil war against Pakistan, because it was not an all out war. USSR assistance and cooperation in many fields continued up to 1964 as our first PM had thought of developing India on USSR model with some limitations as USSR was a communist dictatorship while India was a democratic state. So Pandit Nehru found the middle path of Socialist pattern of society which miserably failed. It was only thereafter that India started improving economic and defense cooperation with other countries including France.
As outlined in brief above France helped India in defense the most when India needed the most in Kargil limited war. Naturally India welcomed the most President Sarkozy’s visit in December 2010. Many agreements and MOU’s have been signed between President Sarkozy and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. It is hoped that these will be implemented by India and France without any reservations. Thus we wish and hope there will be, in particular, much increase in trade in the field of agriculture and food as never before besides more cooperation in defense and even in nuclear energy by forging stronger ties. France is celebrating ‘Year of India’ in its resort town Saint Tropez, during 2012. So far no Asian, European or American country has thought of celebrating ‘Year of India’.
Since India’s Independence and Pandit Nehru becoming Independent India’s first Prime Minister from 1947 to 1964 possibly the largest ruling Prime Minister in entire world, particularly in democratic countries, dynasty rule with small gaps commenced. After Nehru for a few years Shastri ruled though Morarji Desai was the aspirant. But again Nehru’s daughter Indira was chosen as PM setting aside Desai’s claim, though inexperienced as a minister. Thereafter as Sanjay Gandhi who was exercising the powers of PM but had suddenly and at young age died in plane crash that he himself was piloting, was expected to succeed Indira Gandhi in due course as was being groomed by Indira herself. After Indira’s assassination in 1984, as dynastic rule demanded, Rajiv Gandhi, absolutely in experienced in politics and government, was sworn in as PM. Unfortunately he too met the fate of his mother as was assassinated by Tamil Tigers as, in support of Sri Lankan President, he had sent Indian Army to finish Tamil Tigers, in which he failed. Present ruler is president of UPA, though Italian by birth and not PM. But she is recognized by congress (I) as the real ruler of India with the help of her coterie of ministers, over-ruling and dictating PM. Dr Manmohan Singh was appointed P.M. as he was not a politician but an economist and had never won an election even to this day, thus he could not be assertive and never a challenge to the authority of Sonia Gandhi and rise of her son Rahul Gandhi, last aspirant of dynasty.
Now the dynasty rule is spreading and in evident in many states. In Punjab, Badal family is ruling and Prakash Singh Badal’s son has already been made Dy C.M. and some other members of Badal family are ministers. In adjoining state of Haryana, there is dynasty rule of Hooda family. In Tamil Nadu there is dynasty rule of Karunanidhi family which rules Tamilnadu and has half a dozen ministers in Central Government. In Bihar there was dynasty rule of Lalu Prasad Yadav’s family as when he had to resign as Chief Minister, he appointed his wife Rabri Devi as CM though she had neither education nor experience. There was going to be dynasty rule in Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and even Maharashtra.
With the decline of Congress and its worries about the 2G scam and many other scams making Parliament non functional for more than 15 days in a row, as never before, it seems that ineffective government of Sonia Gandhi and Manmohan Singh will not last long as Congress has earned bad name as never before.
Recently Dr Aziz Qureshi, who has been elected as member of AICC for 38 years, was minister in his home state MP and even member of Lok Sabha, has now been disgusted with the Congress because of its coterie. In his words “a coterie and money bags have replaced genuine workers” The proof of congress decline is its pathetic performance in recent elections in Bihar. Though Rahul Gandhi had campaigned and addressed dozens of meetings, Nitish Kumar and his party in alliance with BJP wiped out Congress as well as Lalu Prasad Yadav, it seems forever. Time was when Dr Rajendra Prasad a Bihari congress stalwart was first President of Indian Republic. One cannot forget contribution towards India’s freedom moment and his contribution for development of Bihar, his home state.
Because of decline of dynastic rule incapable persons like Narsimha Rao and selfish leaders like Morarji Desai tasted power for few years and paved the way for rise of BJP to have majority and rule India for a full term. Victory of Congress and UPA in 2004 demonstrated that in India rule of one party either congress or BJP is over. Hereafter there will be coalition at the centre and even in states like Maharashtra. Where Congress had to share power with Sharad Pawar who was the one who vehemently opposed Sonia Gandhi, as Italian born and founded a separate political party to oppose congress (I) and its leader Sonia Gandhi. Though he swallowed his pride and for the sake of power joined congress led UPA both at centre and in Maharashtra, which has been ruling the state because of Sharad Pawar’s support, Because of dynasty supremacy congress had earlier lost Gujarat, Punjab, even Haryana for some time, as well as UP, MP, Tamilnadu and Karnataka. It is on the way of losing power in Andhra because it had no guts and firm policy to concede separate state of Telengana for which agitation and demand is perhaps the oldest since Sri Ramulu’s fast unto death decades back and his ultimate death for the cause of Telangana.
To sum it up, it is evident from brief survey that both congress and dynasty rule are on decline. In 2014 elections or even before, congress may lose power as in no populous and important state congress is now a ruler. In contrast 20 years back congress was ruling, without any other party’s support, virtually whole of India. Though congress party, it’s coterie even PM and of course Sonia Gandhi are grooming Rahul Gandhi as next PM of India but, in the eyes of congress stalwarts as well as workers, he does not deserve to be PM. If at all Rahul Gandhi becomes next PM, which will be thrust on him just like his father Rajiv Gandhi from being a pilot who entered politics because of sudden death of his brother Sanjay Gandhi. Rahul Gandhi may be or may never be last PM of Nehru Gandhi dynasty at will, or may herald the end of congress rule it.
Azim Premji has really become great in the sphere of philanthropy, as his first name Azim means. He was already prominent in Business as chief of Wipro. Premji owned 79% share in Wipro and he has decided to transfer 8.7% of his share valued at 8,846 crores of Rupees to Azim Premji Foundation. Though Premji controls the foundation or trust but it will be managed by K.R.Lakshmi Narayana who is at present Wipro’s Chief Strategy Officer. Transfer of millions of shares from Wipro to the foundation came into effect from 7th December 2010 and so the Philanthropy of such a huge amount of more than 8000 crore of rupees will come into operation.
It is evident that this is the biggest philanthropic fund that will, as per the announced purpose, be utilized mainly for educational purposes. In Azim Premji’s words, that highlight the purpose of transfer of millions of shares, which would have earned 127 crores of rupees during 2009-10 alone: “We believe that good education is crucial to building a just, equitable and sustainable society. We want to contribute significantly towards improvement of education in India, and through that towards building a better society” During 20006, Anil Aggarwal foundation had announced an endowment of 1 billion dollars more than 4000 crore rupees for setting up Vedanta University in Orissa. On the other hand Tata group, Anand Mahindra and Narayan Murthy contributed to Harvard University, while India needed more funds and donations for education of poor and neglected children and required huge amount of donation for their overall uplift. In this connection it is significant while in USA 2% of GDP is given for philanthrophy in India only 0.6% of GDP while USA’s GDP is more than 100 times that of India. Tata, Mahindra and Krishnamurthy should be aware that philanthropy like charity should begin at home and not abroad.
Azim Premji proposes to set up a University in Bangalore. His main emphasis would be to encourage more students for primary education which would be much improved than the existing, as better primary education is the greatest need of the time. So that more people are educated and rise further and get employment of all categories. The University will be rightly known as Azim Premji University which is likely to come up in 2011 or within a couple of years starting with admission of 200 and reaching in few years to 3000 or even more.
Such philanthropy in India is so far unknown. It matches with that of Rockefeller and Ford Foundations of United States and it is not anywhere else in the world. It is heartening to note that Azim Premji Foundation, since 2000 has given assistance to more than 25000 schools all over India for better and free education to the poor children as well as better education to all and it is pointed out that more than 25 lakh students have benefitted since then. Government of Karnataka has approved the location and setting up of the Azim Premji University and has allotted 75 acres of land about 15 kilometer away from the Wipro Ltd headquarters, an IT major owned by Azim Premji.
Efforts to improve education for severally deprived and backward students are not confined to Karnataka only which has allotted hundreds of acres of land and is willing to provide other requisite facilities. The Azim Premji Foundation plans to set up centers in all districts all over the country in all the states without exception during next five years or so.
Ambani brothers and Jindals are the richest Indian businessmen. Their concerns are amongst the 10 greatest in the world. They are among the ten richest businessmen in the world. It is high time that they follow the example of Azim Premji who is third richest in India and 28th richest in the world. Thus Ambanis are far richer than Azim Premji. They can make twice the amount for Philanthropy in India to improve the conditions of poor and backward section of society of India without discrimination of caste, religion or state.
Economic and social inequality in India is still one of the highest while the number of billionaires is increasing. It is estimated by Forbes Magazine that there are 69 billionaires in India at present. They should follow the example of Azim Premji and contribute about 5 to 10 percent of their yearly profit for philanthropy. At least 20 billionaires in India are such that they are so prosperous that they can easily contribute for charitable and philanthropy purposes at least 40 billion dollars annually. That would come to more than 1 lakh fifty thousand crores of rupees. Such and so much contribution towards social and economic uplift of the poor and backward, who are still more than 30 percent of India’s population, will go a long way in uplifting them and within 10 years, population of India below poverty line will come down substantially and India’s prestige abroad, by having more technologist, doctors and Business Managers, would rise. India will be able to win battle of poverty which cannot be won by the Government efforts and contribution alone. Thus Azim Premji’s efforts and contribution of 2 Billion Dollars i.e. more than 8000 crores of rupees is exemplary.
There is a confrontation between North and South Korea particularly after North Korea attacked South Korea with missiles. That attack woke up President Obama at 3.30 a.m. He was upset. He got in contact with Beijing to tell them to contact North Korea their ally. China was lukewarm to Washington. As a result there is escalation of war efforts on both sides. North Korea has sent Nuclear Submarine close to South Korea Island and USA too has retaliated by sending ‘Washington’ an important carrier which is nuclear powered and is equipped with nuclear weapons in support of South Korea, close to North Korea waters.
Question arises, can Obama or USA afford a second Korean War, after the first Korean War initiated and waged by USA which ended in 1953 causing loss of lives on both sides. McArthur wanted to proceed further and attack North Korea by crossing the river dividing China and Korea but America wisely abstained from going ahead in views of warnings by China and its ally USSR which had nuclear weapons and openly said that it would support China with all might if USA attack. So USA restrained itself because it had already suffered heavy loss of many thousand lives by supporting Chiang Kai Shek against Mao TS Tang’s communists who finally captured whole of China and established a second biggest communist country in the world at that time.
Now position of China in support of Korea is like it was of Russia in support of China after the Second World War. America could not afford a war with USSR then. Similarly America or Obama cannot afford a second Korea war when USA is still involved in second Afghan War and also in Iraq and is worried about Iran.
Now about the origin of present crises threatening even a nuclear war. North Korea, particularly the young President Kim who is in his 20’s, feel that North Korea and South Korea are one country divided by USA by aggression. Even when the first Korean War ended in 1953 there was no formal peace treaty between North and South Korea and USA. Since 1953 USA has stationed in South Korea large number of troops up to 30000 on date. Notably North Korea has resented pressure of US Army in South Korea since 1953. In the meantime to this day USA is conducting joint military and naval exercises with South Korea. USA also has equipped South Korea with nuclear weapons. USA had prepared to hold one of the biggest military exercises in Korean water in October 2010. When China came to know of it protested so strongly that USA had to cancel it. But to deter North Korea US still conducted Naval exercises with South Korea in November 2010. Clearly confrontation between North Korea and South Korea openly supported by US Army and Navy is going on. Thus deep hostility between two sides, South Korea and USA on one side and North Korea and China on the other has not abated but is reaching the point of danger. China can not abandon its ally North Korea. Similarly it is unthinkable that USA will let South Korea down.
It is a very difficult situation for President Obama whose popularity is declining and during last year it has come down from about 60% to 45 % or so. As stated above USA is involved in Afghanistan for the last ten years without any success despite its sending more US and NATO allies troops, attacking the Taliban hideouts right up to Pakistan’s provinces of NWFP and Baluchistan even with Drone attacks. On the other hand China is rising both economically and militarily. More so there is no opposition in China. Rather Chinese leadership today is more unified than both of USA and Russia, as there is virtually no opposition in China to the government and leadership in power.
China and the world know American leadership is handicapped with its difficulties to take firm action in support of South Korea beyond certain limit. China too would like a peaceful solution of Korean tangle existing for the last 57 years. Possibly the best course is that Chinese PM and American President should meet along with Russia and Japanese leaders and, if possible with North Korean and South Korean leaders to arrive at a lasting settlement of Korean crises. They should consider seriously the unification of North and South Korea into one Korea. The world, neither China nor USA can afford a nuclear war. Entire world is looking forward for peace so as to tackle with problems like that controlling of the pollution of the planet as well as other climatic issues of the world like melting of ice in North and South poles and causing havoc like unprecedented flooding and volcanoes. With the next meeting of Kyoto Protocol on climate being held shortly by Industrial and developed countries both USA and China must concentrate on it than on North and South Korean confrontation.
Decoding Intolerance- Riots and the Emergence of Terrorism in India- By Pradeep Lahiri- Brief Comments
As a young IAS officer P.K.Lahiri witnessed from close angle Hindu-Muslim riots in Jabalpur in 1961 and as Distt Magistrate in Indore in 1969. He has also dealt with the cause and effect of riots in Bhagalpur 1989, Bombay (December 1992 to January 1993) and the Gujarat riots of 2002. But has not made any mention of anti-Sikh riots of 1984 (though in his Foreword Kuldip Nayyar mentioned as Police inaction)or complaints as these were simply filed as good as disposed of. However his book has been praised for impartial and detailed analysis by prominent writer and journalist Kuldip Nayyar who has written the Foreword Kuldip Nayyar says- “I have been fascinated by the account he has given about riots even minutest details—Fanatics and religiously inclined political parties are responsible for it”
Lahiri has given detailed charts of the communal riots in many parts of India since June 1961, the number of victims those killed and injured. It shows that he has done lot of research. In annexure to the book, he has given in 44 paras, as a Distt Magistrate of Indore who not only witnessed but took responsibility to end violence in Indore almost once for all. On June 1961 disturbance started at 9 p.m. as procession after a meeting was attacked, there was some fight as the procession was forcibly disturbed. Police came into action and disturbance continued for two days more when army was called. So on 4th June virtually all was quiet and appeared peaceful. But during two days and one night some six textile mills of Hindus were burnt. There was an attempt to destroy a mosque but police and army unit saved it. During three days of rioting and couple of days thereafter, total number of deaths were 12 and 258 injured by stabbing, lathis and only 22 received gunshots.
But the disturbance and rioting pales into insignificance in comparison to Bombay riots that killed hundreds and lately 26/11 in 2008 resulted in the death of 180 including a number of foreigners. Government of India is busy since then in getting the Pakistan supported and Pakistan national that created havoc in Taj Mahal Hotel, Mumbai. But even up to second anniversary of 26/11 there has been no action by Pakistan.
Main cause of communal riots in India, after partition riots, which were allowed by Pakistan’s Governor General Jinnah, is the British conspiracy of Churchill and his conservative party which instigated Jinnah to demand separate Muslim state of Pakistan. Accordingly India was divided. Another major cause of communal riots is when Instrument of Accession of Kashmir to India, was accepted Mountbatten, a British Governor General of India in contrast to a Pakistani Muslim Governor General of Pakistan added a clause that ‘ Will’ of the people of Kashmir will be taken afterward. Had this mischievous and uncalled for clause not been added, there would have been no Kashmir problem and no ground for Pakistani armed terrorist entering Kashmir and creating disturbances and riots. Had Nehru who was Prime Minister of Independent India deleted this clause of will of the people or consulted Sardar Patel who was Minister of State, there would have been no Kashmir problem. But unfortunately India’s Prime Minister was under the influence of Mountbatten and virtually one of the members of Mountbatten family, so he could not think of India’s interest and so could not and did not question Mountbatten for adding this clause about ‘will of people’.
Accordingly if there has been no Kashmir problem, there would not have been communal riots, at all, there would have been marginal or minor and also no question of Hindu organizations like RSS and Bajrang Dal (Hindutva) rise in retaliation just as mainly Sikhs retaliated after partition riots initiated by Pakistan, killing millions of Sikhs and Hindus and sending trains full of their dead bodies. In contrast, as per details given in a chart by lahiri, based on government reports and judicial commission finding, in 20 years from 1961 to 1980 number of killed in communal riots was 1017.
Employment of Muslims is much less than their population Lahiri has pointed out that while Muslim population in the country, in 12 states illustrated, is 15.4%, their share of employment is 6.4 percent: For example in west Bengal Muslim population is 25.2 percent but share in state jobs is only 4.2 percent, one of the lowest. Reason is not discrimination of Muslim but lack of education, particularly Higher education and also social set up as Muslim women by and large are not allowed by their parents to move out without burqa or take up a job where man are working.
Hindu Muslim riots after demolition of Babri Masjid to build Ram temple, which is said to have been demolished by Babar, causing one of the worst communal conflagaration have been in Bombay 1992-93 and Gujarat 2002. Lahiri rightly says- “unless a consensus develops not to develop such issues to gain or consolidate their followings among political parties and religious bodies—the mahants, the shankracharyas, the imams and the ulamals the cycle of episodic violence will continue.”
Muslim who are 15 percent of India’s population should realize that separatist organizations like Hurriyat in Kashmir and SIMI will not help in the development and well being of Muslims. Sikhs after operation Blue Star and anti Sikh riots realized that Sikh Separatist will not help, so they discarded them and Akali Dal Joined BJP in Punjab to strengthen Hindu-Sikh brotherhood. Muslim too should join mainstream of Hindus as they have done in Bihar under Nitish Kumar. This approach of Hindus, Muslim and Sikh will make India shine and enhance its economic and social development which will benefit all by rooting out communalism intolerance and terrorism from India.