H C Singh

India 1998 – 2004

Narsimaha Rao government was a blemish on Congress which was led by leaders like Gandhi,Patel, Rajendra Parsad and Nehru. As a result in 1996 elections congress and Narsimaha Rao were trounced. Congress getting only 140 seats against BJP ‘s 161. Thus BJP’s leader Atal Bihari Vajpayee was invited by President to form the government but after two weeks Vajpayee resigned as unlike Narsimaha Rao he did not indulge in malpractice of purchasing MPS to continue in power, as Vajpayee was a rational leader and a veteran who had been MP since 1950’s and was a man of principles. Till next elections of 1998 this country was ruled or misruled by hotchpotch of political parties and called United Front or by any such name under H.D Deve Gowda’s Prime Ministership.

In 1998 elections Congress seats in Parliament touched the lowest. Congress got only 114 seats against its rival the other National Party BJP. As with a number of allies, BJP as leader of National Democratic Front (NDA) formed the government under the Prime Ministership of Vajpayee from March 1998. This was a stable government which could and certainly did a lot for the nation.

The first test of capability and boldness came when Pakistan tested successfully medium range missile called Gauri after a terrorist Muslim invader who had destroyed many temples in north India and killed thousand of innocent Indians in his March from Khyber Pass to north west and central India devastating everything that came in the way. Vaypayee government got ready to give more than a befitting reply to Pakistan’s aggressive attitude and celebrations. Thus just after two months in May 1998 India tested not one but five nuclear devices in Rajasthan from where in 1974 India under Indira Gandhi’s government had tested first ever nuclear device. India showed boldness to the entire world, particularly to Pakistan and India’s Home Minister L K Advani and Defence Minister George Fernandes warned Pakistan and even China for any aggressive action in Kashmir or north east of India.

Inspite of nuclear test by both Pakistan and India, Vajpayee remained cool and farsighted. In early 1999 Prime Minister Vaypayee visited Lahore.

This was a historic visit as PM Vajpayee initiated first ever Bus service from Delhi to Lahore. It was also a historic visit as both India and Pakistan had tested their nuclear bombs and it was feared the Kashmir dispute may not escalate into a full fledged war even with nuclear weapons. Vajpayee’s speech was like applying ointment on Indo-Pak wounds and Prime Minister Vaypayee’s coolness and aptitude as a seasoned politician and former Foreign Minister in Morarji Desai government did wonders. Both India and Pakistan realized the havoc that a nuclear war would cause. It will be worthwhile to quote from his speech, as under:
“I have brought one message from India. There can be no greater legacy that we can leave behind than to do away with mistrust, to abjure and eliminate conflict, to erect an edifice of durable peace, amity, harmony and cooperation. I am confident that through our combined efforts we will succeed in doing so, no matter how hard we have to work in achieving it.”

In appreciation of work and conduct as a politician, as well as his intelligence and remarkable honesty above a few lines are example from Atal Bihari Vaypayee’s speech. Howsoever Vajpayee and Nawaz Sharif liked and tried for maintaining cordial and friendly relations as never before, opening a new chapter in the honesty of Indo-Pak good neighborly relations but events like military coup by Musharaf, deposition of lawfully and democratically elected Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and above all Pakistan Army’s aggression in Kargil area of Kashmir brought hostilities and mistrust.

Kargil area of Indian Kashmir is crucial for the protection of Ladakh. It is also important because Kargil hill tops under Indian control protect the Leh Srinagar highway. Pakistan thought that once these tops of Kargil were occupied by their forces it will be virtually impossible, in their view, for India to dislodge their forces and reoccupy it. But they were mistaken: they had forgotten the Indian Army’s courage and determination as evidenced in surrender of 90,000 Pakistanis soldiers with generals on the defeat of East Pakistan and creation of Bangladesh as well as defeat of Pakistani Army in 1965 and India’s occupation of Haji Pir. But Pakistan’s high command felt that as they have nuclear power matching with India, Government of India under BJP will hesitate to dislodge their forces from Kagil heights , fearing nuclear war. But that was not to be as Prime Minister Vaypayee was not like Charan Singh or Morarji Desai. He was a man with iron determination.

In May 1999 Indian Army was alerted by Kashmiri shepherds about unknown Pakistan’s soldier and Pathans. Kargil war was Musharaf’s war against India as Chief of Pakistan Army. But as Pakistani Army was mauled and given crushing defeat by Indian Soldiers though Pakistan had initially occupied all the tops of the Kargil hills and it appeared to Pakistani Army and Musharaf that Indian Army will not dislodge the Pakistani Army. But as after fierce fighting by Indian Army aided by Indian Air Force, Pakistan and Musharaf’s army was given humiliating defeat, Musharaf hit upon the idea to put the blame of defeat on Pakistan’s PM Nawaz Sharif. So he staged a military coup in Oct ’99 and dislodged Nawaz sharif and himself became the President of Pakistan. Pakistan had lost more than 2000 soldiers in comparison India lost about 500 valiant soldiers from all over India including Nagaland, Orissa and Karnataka besides majority being from northern Army.

It was Vajpayee’s first victory, a great victory as PM which washed off humiliation of Indian Army defeat in 1962 China war. While China had intruded into north east of India exploring vast area and leaving the conquered territory of India at their own will, the Pakistan Army in Kargil war was crushed and India captured with fierce fighting all the hills of Kargil area including Tiger hill.

September 17, 2009 Posted by | Corruption, India, Indian History, Political Commentary, Politics | , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Fundamentalism and Terrorism

Root cause of terrorism lies in fundamentalism which leads to fanaticism which in due course becomes terrorism or leads to terrorism. Thus fundamentalism, whether it is Muslim and even in Muslims between Shias and Sunis or it is Christian which is responsible for death of 6 million Jews under Hitler or Jewish which is mainly responsible for Jewish-Arab conflict in Palestine and West Asia (Jews being armed and supported by America while Palestinian by rest of Arabs. Fundamentalism is an evil whether it is communistic, which caused death of hundreds of thousands under Stalin for being anti Stalin or anti communistic or it is Buddhist under Dalai lama, which is causing trouble in Tibet and strong reaction in China or Hindu fundamentalism of Bajrang Dal and RSS which led to demolition of Babri Masjid or Sikh fundamentalism Leading to Dal Khalsa separatist (though as a reaction to attack on Golden Temple under Indira Gandhi’s Prime Minister-ship.)

Fundamentalism of any type or of any religion or of any ‘ism’ is an evil. It is a curse on humanity.

I therefore quote from Bhavani Singh’s article on Global Terrorism.


Terrorism, having acquired a religious label in the name of Jehad or holy-war has become attractive to its followers and is rooted deep into their psyche. It arms them with suitable motivation to attempt something really big or spectacular, no matter at what cost. The frequent use of human bombs indicates not only the capability but also the commitment of terrorists to make the supreme sacrifice on the altar of and in the name of religion which makes it transnational. The activities of Pak-sponsored terrorism in Kashmir and Hamas- induced killings in Israel are instances in point. Apart from getting an immense amount of international publicity and media coverage through frenzied headlines, the urge for which is universal, the perpetrators of such crimes also receive a shot in their arms in the name of religion. Ayatollah Mohammed Hussain, in his treatise Islam and Violence, expressed his views on terrorism with striking candour. He said, “We don’t see ourselves as terrorists because we don’t believe in terrorism. We don’t see resisting the occupier as a terrorist action. We see ourselves as Mujahideens who fight a holy war (Jihad) for the people. Faith, whether religious or political is all. To the individual terrorist or supporter of terrorism, a murder can be an expression of defense of freedom, a car bomb which kills civilians can be a blow struck in a war of liberation, a kidnapping and a murder can be a step towards justice.”

With the disintegration of USSR, New independent Muslim Countries of former Soviet Union have become more aggressive and fanatical Muslims. This is evident from the fact “Turkmenistan had only four functional mosques before 1991, now the number is over 100. Similarly in Uzbekistan the number of mosques increased from 300 to 5000. Even Kyrgistan today has over 1000 mosques.”… Before 1991 no Muslim from these Muslim republics of USSR was going for Haj pilgrimage… “People going to Haj pilgrimage are being financially helped by Saudi Arabia. The result is that Islamic terrorist groups have sprung up in all central Asian Islamic Republics….and efforts now are for full scale Talibisation despite guarded local resistant” (Bhawani Singh’s article on Global Terrorism) These republics are close to Iran and have been helping Iran in getting nuclear know-how and latest technologies and equipment for nuclear bombs and missiles.

It will be apt to conclude Islamic Terrorism with the Jehadi Terrorists of various categories in Pakistan and even in India because of Calcutta Killings of 1946 which were instigated by none others than Mohd Ali Jinnah President of Muslim League who said that to achieve our aim of getting Pakistan “today we bid goodbye to constitutional methods.” After Calcutta Killings through Muslim League ‘Direct Action’, in August 47, when Jinnah became Governor General of Pakistan he instigated killing of lakhs of Hindus and Sikhs who were rich and dominant in Agriculture industry and business. Thus under Jinnaha’s eyes about 10 lakh Sikhs and Hindus were massacred and more than 1 crore turned out in clothes they were wearing. It can therefore be said that Jinnah and Muslim League in 1946 to end of 1948 were terrorists by any standard. Pakistani Taliban sponsored terrorism continues to this day in Kashmir and many parts of India as is evidenced by 26/11 Bombay blasts and sporadic blasts and riots in many parts of India by Indian Muslim Jehadis with support from Pakistan. Jehadi organizations and Talibans.

USA And War on Terrorism

Since Second World War America has been responsible for the deaths of millions: first by dropping atom bombs on Hiroshima and then unnecessarily on Nagasaki killing thousands of innocent civilians including women and children, then by entering in Chinese Civil War on the side of Chiang Kai Shek to contain communism, the same in Korea and then in Vietnam where 10 million Vietnamese died and also about 1 lakh American Soldier. USA did not stop here continued to arm,finance and support Israel against Palestine and adjoining Arab countries there by making most of Arabs and Muslims all over the world Anti American if not enemies of America.

Then came two attacks in 9/11 in twin towers in New York, and as a reaction attack on Iraq and on Taliban in Afghanistan and even in Pakistan, though Taliban were American creation with a view to free Afghanistan from Soviet supported Communism.

After 9/11 terrorist attack on Twin Towers in New York in which 3000 Americans died. Norman Millar in his book ‘Why are we at War’ is virtually crying for his country, the USA. “What in God’s name was happening? It is one thing to hear a mighty explosion. It is another to recognize some time after the event that one has been deafened by it. The United States was going through an identity crisis. Questions about our nature as a country were being asked that most good American men and women had never posed to themselves before. Questions such as, Why are we so hated? How could anyone resent us that much? We do no evil. We believe in goodness and freedom. Who are we, then?

In fact USA right from the end of World War in 1945, as explained above killed millions of people to contain communism and to prove to the world that USA is the only Super Power, while upto 1939-40 USA believed in isolation under Monroe Doctrine and did not either interfere in the affairs of the rest of world or let rest of world (any country of Europe in particular) to interfere in its affairs.
Hindutva- Its true meaning

The word Hindutva was coined and used first of all by V.D.Savarkar. Hinduism is a religion that all Hindus follow with all the rituals and worshiping all the Hindu gods Lord Rama, Krishna, Hanuman and other regional gods whose statues are all over India and worshiped by devout Hindus. It also means respect and if possible knowledge of Ramayana, Mahabharat, Vedas, Shastra and other many millennium old Hindu or Vedic Literature. Hindutva also means that Indian civilzation embraces all those who live in India, to whatever religion they belong but they have to love Indian Civilization in contrast to Muslim Civilization as propagated in Mecca and Christian Civilization as explained and propagated by Pope of Rome.

RSS Chief K S Sudarshan in 2001 while addressing a large gathering in Hardware said “The time has come when both Muslims and Christians who are living in India should Indianize their religions. They should sever their links with Mecca and Pope and instead become swadeshi.” (The Tribune Chandigarh March 9,2001) An extremist Hindu Brig B N Sharma (Retd) in his book, “A Nation on Fire,” defines Hindutava as: Hindutava is the collective essence of “Hinduism and is the end product of three elements, cultural nationalism, intense patriotism, and a pride in the collective memory of India’s past glory.” But Brig Sharma, as the title of book reveals, is not moderate but fundamentalist. He has ridiculed so called secularists who are more concerned with vote bank than with nation’s interest.

If BJP follows fully and faithfully what K.S Sudarshan says then BJP can never become all embracing Indian Political Party where followers of any religion will be welcome just as Hindus, without any discrimination. It is pertinent to quote Dr Chaudhary as under.
“The seeds of pathological antipathy and diabolical hatred against Muslims and Christians in India sown by Savarkar have now fully fructified, thanks to the constant watering and manuring of seeds at the hands of the Sangh Parivar. It resulted into the shameless act of demolition of Babri Masjid at Ayodhya in 1992 followed by communal holocaust all over the country in which hundreds of innocent citizens lost their lives. Then came the systematic persecution of Christians resulting into the horrendous act of burning alive of an Australian Christian doctor engaged into healing lepers, along with his two adolescent sons in Orissa.”(South Asia Today)

If BJP follows Hindutva in its full form with all the implications, it may attract towards BJP more and more Hindus with the active help of more than a dozen RSS volunteering organizations in virtually all fields like student and teacher organization workers of industrial and academic fields, women and in tribal sphere etc,etc.. But still it will remain only a Hindu Communal organization. To be a Secular All India Party BJP will have to dilute Hindutva and make it appear truly an Indian Civilization and part of all comprehensive Indian Cultural, linguistic, religious and ethnic groups.

It was mainly Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s farsight and determination that transformed BJS Bhartya Jan sangh a Hindu Party like RSS, into BJP an All India National Party like Indian National Congress and captured power in 1998 and ruled the country for full term of 5 years without virtual alliance with any party except Akali Dal; in Punjab. If BJP tries to be a truly secular party lot of uncommitted voters from other religions and regions will support it.

No doubt Muslim terrorist, jehadis of many hues and Taliban by their incursions and killings through suicide bombing like 9/11 in USA and 26/11 in Bombay have encouraged RSS followers, Israelis and some Christian Countries to give befitting reply. But for peace of the world and peace in their own country tact, patience and action are required to as and when necessary.

August 28, 2009 Posted by | India, Religion, Terrorism | , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Charan Singh

About Charan Singh’s rise and fall much has been written in the main article as well in brief summaries about Morarji Desai as well as Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Though Charan Singh’s contribution to Janta Party’s victory and Indira Gandhi’s crushing defeat, but as stated, he virtually had no commendable achievement to remember. It was unfortunate for Janta Party rule with which his name could be associated and remembered. It was unfortunate for Janta Party that it had a leader and Home Minister like Charan Singh whose only aim was to be PM whether Janta Party supports him or not, whether Janta Party continues to rule or not. With the help of arch enemy of Janta Party. Indira Gandhi he defeated Morarji Desai and demolished Janta Government. However when her purpose of defeating Janta Government was achieved she got Charan Singh defeated to become  Prime Minister. So less it is said about Charan Singh better it is.

With these remarks and with heavy heart we close the brief summary of Janta Party leaders and Janta Party itself.

Review of Janta Government’s short span will be incomplete without referring to the chief architects of Janta’s victory and on their brief background and their conduct, as politicians, leading to the ultimate failure of Janta government. Morarji Desai had been Chief Minister of Bombay which composed of present day Maharashtra as well as Gujarat. Though he belonged to Gujarat yet his being CM of Bombay, which was predominantly a Marathi speaking state, was not resented because at that time Congress under the leadership of Gandhiji, Sardar Patel, Pandit Nehru and Dr Rajendra Prasad was unquestionably national Party which was instrumental in winning independence (Azadi) for India.

But in due course Maharashtrians demanded ouster of Gujarati Chief Minister. There were huge demonstration even violent ones by the ‘All Party Action Committee of Sanyukta Maharashtra’. They even burnt effigies of Desai and Nehru, besides there being complete strike and thereafter unprecedented riots. When mobs indulged in looting shops and offices, police resorted to firing and that resulted into death of more than a dozen people. So Morarji Desai who had lost control of Bombay and got bad name for himself for congress and Nehru was replaced by Y.B Charan, Maharashtrian, as Chief Minister.

In 1968, young Turks led by Chander Shekhar levied charges of corruption on Desai’s son Kanti Desai. As Morarji Desai was Finance Minister he was charged with issuing licences out of turn to his favourite large Industrial Houses. As Desai also appeared to be opposed to nationalization of Banks. Indira Gandhi divested him from Finance portfolio.

As already explained, in the main articles, Desai was after Prime Ministership and hoped and tried his best, after Pandit Nehru’s demise. He could not get despite all efforts in preference to Lal Bahadur Shastri who was simple and honest. Secondly he got defeat from Indira Gandhi when he demanded voting in Parliament. His ambition to be PM, was however fulfilled after Indira’s defeat in 1976 general relations. So he became PM as Janta Party’s choice but by his failure to control the flock and impress upon equally selfish leader like Charan Singh he miserably failed. Charan Singh who, too, had ambition to be PM. He succeeded with the help of arch enemy of Janta Party, Indira Gandhi. Charan Singh broke the Janta Party and broke the heart of Desai. Thus Desai was a failure as Chief Minister of Bombay, failure as Finance Minister and failure as Prime Minister.
It is incompetent and selfish leaders like Morarji Desai and Charan Singh who tarnished the image of Janta Party and ultimately destroyed it.

Indira Gandhi used Charan Singh, Janta’s Dy CM at that time to oust the Janta Government. She could not forgive and forget Charan Singh who was instrumental in her arrest. She wanted him to be ousted within a month or so but Charan Singh was sworn as PM in July 79 and remained PM for about three months, to pave the way for Indira to be PM again, as Indira informed the President that she and her party had withdrawn support and were no more supporting Charan Singh as PM. Election Commission took 3 months to hold the elections. Accordingly Parliamentary elections were held in less than 3 years. Indira Gandhi became PM with thumping majority, winning 353 seats in Parliament out of 500 or so. This emboldened her more than during emergency because now she was legitimate and duly elected PM with absolute majority, more than in 1971 elections.

Janta’s fratricidal war between leaders and resulting unpopularity and finally Caharn Singh’s dumping Janta Party and Government for getting support of Indira Gandhi made Indira more bold, more revengeful more autocratic. Sanjay had realized that his excesses against Muslims, of large scale demolition in Turkman gate area and family planning, had antagonized Muslims. Accordingly Sanjay apologized to pacify the Muslims and get the ‘Muslim vote Bank’ back in Congress. During emergency it was Sanjay who was real dictator but after 1980 elections remained in the background and Indira became once again the dictator. Her first act was to dismiss nine state Governments. Again it was Sanjay who was now an elected MP as well as General Secretary of Congress, who started weilding authority and power on behalf of PM. It was Sanjay who was to decide who was to be given Congress ticket for Assembly elections and who would be Chief Minister of a Congress ruled state. But unfortunately for mother Indira her son Sanjay died in a single engine plane crash which he was piloting, as a hobby, in New Delhi almost over his residence and PM’s residence. By the end of August Indira persuaded her second son Rajiv who was a pilot in an airline to resign from his job and assist her.
Soon one of the biggest strike of workers was witnessed which went on for two years in Bombay, as the demand of the workers to revise wages ie minimum wage from Rs 670 PM to 940 was rejected by the Government. More than 2,00,000 workers had participated in that strike as a result more than 2 million man days were last. During the same period there was demand for creation of separate State of Jharkhand, mainly inhabited by tribals. Early 1980’s saw revival of demand for independent state of Nogaland under aegis of National socialist council of Nogaland (NSCN) which charged Phizo and his Shillong accord during emergency as sell out. NSCN gurillas in Feb 1988 ambushed a military convoy and killed more than 20 military personnel. The Army restricted with farce and military and NSCN submitted. There was also movement in Assam for new economic policy for the state. Assames also demanded deletion of names of immigrants from voters lists, particularly Bengalis and Muslims.

As explained earlier, during emergency Akalis opposed most vehemently imposition of emergency. As a result out of the total arrests during emergency more than 50% were Akali Sikhs mainly from Punjab who opposed imposition of emergency and courted arrest including Parkash Singh Badal former Chief Minister and leaders of SGPC, the Sikh premier religious organization which managed all the Gurdwara’s of Punjab. During the first 3 months of emergency more than 80,000 people- protesters, leaders and journalists were arrested of these more than 30,000 were Akalis.

So much opposition by Akalis in particular and Sikhs in general infuriated Indira Gandhi and when the time came after the Congress under Indira Gandhi’s leadership was returned to power in 1980 elections with unprecedented majority in Parliament, congress winning 353 seats in Parliament. This not only emboldened her but it got into her head she become revengeful particularly of Sikhs and Akalis as Sikhs constituted only 1.5% of India’s population but had protested against imposition of emergency and were 30% of total arrests during emergency. She at once made up her mind to humiliate and punish not only Akalis but the entire Sikh Community.

Indira immediately started to find ways and means of achieving this nefarious aim by consulting her close associates Sikhs in congress like Giani Zail Singh.

With the end of emergency Badal again became the CM of Punjab, as he was before the imposition of emergency and his subsequent arrest with other prominent members of his cabinet and SGPC. This was not that congress under Indira Gandhi liked, so she started finding ways and means to oust Akalis and punish Sikhs as a whole.
Bhindranwale who was vociforous against Nirankaris and was a seminary of Damdami Taksal, suited Congress and Indira so that an orthodox Sikh faction fights the Akalis. Bhindranwale was built up by Sanjay Gandhi and the Union Home Minister Zail Singh ( himself a former Chief Minister of Punjab) as a counter to the Akalis. Writing in September 1982, the journalist Ayesha Kagal remarked that the Bhindranwale was ‘originally a product nurtured and marketed by the centre to cut into the Akali Dal’s sphere of influence’. (page 559)

Bhindranwale used to come fully armed to New Delhi on the top of a Bus full of his fanatic followers but Delhi Government or Central Government did not take any action to disarm him not to speak of arresting him. He addressed Sikh gathering in Delhi Gurdwaras particularly Bangla Sahib, hardly one km from Central Secretariat. This clearly shows that Indira Gandhi wanted him to be strong rival of Akalis. With the dismissal of Akali Government in 1980 because of apparent Akali-Sikh and, Nirankari violent conflict initiated by Bhindranwala. Punjab situation became tense, because of Bhinderanwale’s militant followers , but no action was taken by the Central or Delhi Government.

In April 80, Nirankari leader Baba Gurcharan Singh was shot dead in New Delhi. It was assumed that this was the work of Bhinderanwale who addressed a number of Sikh gatherings from Akal Takhat inside the Golden Temple complex. He was not prevented by police from taking arms inside the temple complex. Rather he was facilitated to do so. The challenge of Bhinderawale made peaceful and uncommited Sikhs, besides Akalis, to join his demand for a ‘Sikh Republic’ or state. Bhinderawale now compared Congress Rule to Moughal Rule against which the Sikhs under Maharaja Ranjit Singh fought and defeated Muslims in Punjab, NWFP and Kashmir. To gain popularity among peasant Sikhs, in particular, he wanted and tried to make Sikhs, (particularly Akalis) militants, Bhinderanwale became a hero when after the murder, in September 1981, of Lala Jagat Narain a famous editor who had exposed Bhinderanwale and his followers, and was arrested on charge of murder but released after three weeks. His arrest was dramatic. Darbara Singh, Chief Minister of Punjab wanted to arrest him then and there but Zail Singh prevented him from doing so fearing the fall out. But after sometime Bhinderanwale offered to be arrested by a Sikh Police Officer bearing beard and with turban. Punjab Government agreed to his conditions. His arrest and release after three weeks made Bhinderanwale undisputed leader of Sikhs, more important and more influential than any Sikh leader, including Badal.
That Darbara Singh a Sikh Chief Minister of Punjab and Zail Singh a Sikh Home Minister of Government of India were Indira’s henchmen who played neforious anti Sikh role at the bidding of Indira and facilitated her effort to turnish the image of Akali’s in particular and sikh’s in general as Communal, separatists and even anti-Indira and anti-India. It will be more clear from the following:

“ To give a new twist to Punjab situation several heads of cows were placed before Hindu temple in Amritsar” according to government media, this provocative act was of Dal Khalsa which was banned in May 1982. But emphatic denial of Dal Khalsa was blocked out from media. However in an interview Dr Gopal Singh of Himachal University said ‘ it was the work of Darbara Singh’s agents. It is for record that some Muslim butchers from Saharnpur recruited to throw cow-heads at places of Hindu worship were arrested at Amritsar but the inconvenient news was suppressed’. Giani Zail Singh who knew the truth about cow-heads being placed at Hindu places of worship was told by Indira not to speak on Punjab or proofer any advice unsolicited’ (Dr Sangat Singh, Sikhs in History page 384-85).

Throughout 1982, on the other side negotiations on Anandpur Sahib Resolution between the Akali’s and the Indira government continued but without any result. Thus all Akali legislators en mass resigned from Punjab Assembly because of delaying tactics of the Government. Akali’s became more vociferous as well as active as challenge of Bhinderanwale who had been made a Sikh hero, was upsetting Akali’s and they were loosing followers and workers.

Not to be left behind Akali started organizing Shahidi Jathas ie Martyers Squads, and started comparing congress rule with Mughal rule and addressed the Akali gatherings to be ready for supreme sacrifice to end the tyranny of Indira rule. In April 83 a senior Police officer A.S. Atwal was killed after he had left Golden Temple after prayers but Bhinderanwale followers thought he had been sent by Inidra to survey the hide outs of Sikh militants in Golden Temple Cmplex, particularly Akal Takhat.

In October 83 a bus was stopped and Hindu passengers were segregated, obviously by Bhinderanwale followers and Killed. Bhinderanwale and his militants fully armed entered Golden Temple and took up residence in Akal Takhat.

With the rise of Bhinderanwale with the support of Indira Government through Darbara Singh and Zail Singh, Akal Takhat was allowed to be occupied and became virtually a citadel of Bhindreranwale and his militant followers. Bhinderanwale started addressing the followers from Akal Takhat daily and like the Sikh Gurus started issuing Hukamnamas (orders). To make his Akal Takhat fortress more effective a retired Major General of Indian Army Subheg Singh was authorized to surprise the arming and preventive measures of Akal Takhat so that it could withstand the possible attack by Government forces and even repulse.

Both sides, Indira Government and Bhinderanwale squads were now ready to face armed confrontation. Government wanted a senior Sikh military officer to lead military operations. Accordingly Major General R.S. Barar was appointed and briefed by the Generals Sunderji and Dayal. It was clear that the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had decided to trounce the Akali’s and Sikhs in their most sacred and historical Gurdwara and Akal Takhat, the Golden Temple Complex, though for last year or so she had been negotiating with Akalis on one side and preparing for attack on Golden Temple on the other. The tragedy was bound to be worst because such a day of attack by Indian Army was chosen which was 5th Sikh Guru. Arjan Dev martyrdom day and thousands of Sikhs had come to pay homage to the great Guru.

August 28, 2009 Posted by | India, Indian History, Politics | , , , , , | Leave a comment

To Me Mahatma Gandhi

As young and immature man of below 12 years I used to follow Gandhi and considered him real mahatma. I was very much impressed since 1942 Quit India movement in which I had little bit participated as a lad of under 12 years. But going to college, studying politics and history independently I came to conclusion that Gandhi was not either very intelligent or very honest or upright. By his so called non violence, which suited the British rulers of India before independence in comparison to demand and fight for independence come what may be Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh and many other revolutionaries, Gandhi was made an icon of non violence and a mahatma.

As M.K. Gandhi’s performance as an advocate was not only below expectations from a Bar-at-law but poor, as has been described by POLAK in Great Men of India. It will be pertinent to reproduce below his comments on Gandhi’s ability and courage.
“On return from England after being Bar-at-law he continued practise in Bombay high court. His first case was a trial, not so much of his knowledge and ability as of his courage. To speak in public had always been an ordeal for him and now to have to conduct a case, even the placing of bare facts of it before the court, was more than he could do. He rose to speak but became tongue-tied. Baffled he begged to be relieved of his case and hastened from the court in shame and anguish, vowing never to appear again until he had learned to master himself and could use his brain and body as the instrument of his will.”

So to start with despite of having lived in England and having been called to Bar he was an utter failure as an advocate. So he first joined his brother in business and thereafter went to South Africa at the request of an Indian businessman, where it was more politics than law.

Though from 1942 to 1949 I considered Gandhi as Mahatma and Father of Nation and raised slogans like ‘Inqilab Zindabad’ and ‘Mahatma Gandhi Zindabad’ and on hearing that he had been assassinated by a Hindu fanatic because Gandhi was instrumental in the payment of Rs. 55 crore (Rs 550 Million) to Pakistan though Pakistan had waged a war against India in Kashmir, I kept fast for full 24 hours, not drinking even water and attended condolence meeting at the bank of Satluj river near Sardar Bhagat Singh’s smadhi.

Till 1949 I had not read and known about Gandhi’s high handedness not befitting a Mahatma or Father of nation in forcing rightfully elected Subhash Chandra Bose who defeated Gandhi’s candidate Patabhi Sitaramya. Instead of accepting the verdict of people and allowing S C Bose to function he indirectly made all the earlier members of congress working committee not to cooperate with Subhash Bose and not to join his Working Committee. It is to credit of Subhash Bose who was not yet ‘Netaji’ to resign instead of dividing the party. In this connection I reproduce below once again extracts from an article by POLAK expressed in an article in Greatmen of India.

“After the re-election of Subhash Chandra Bose as president of the congress… inspite of Gandhi’s support for another candidate the annual session of the congress that followed expressed complete confidence in him, resolved to support his politics and virtually instructed Mr. Bose to appoint a Working Committee that would enjoy Gandhi’s confidence: Mr. Bose however failed to get support of Gandhi’s nominees and resigned the Presidentship, the new President, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, being an old colleague of the Mahatma’s and the new working committee being composed entirely of his supporters.”

In the face of Bose’s demand to present Britain with an ultimatum in the prevailing international arena in order to compel her to grant India’s freedom Gandhi’s view was that “it would not be proper or generous on her part to take advantage of Britain’s embarrassment in the international field….”

… “In the following passage from a letter from Gandhi to Bose, in reply to later’s proposed ultimatum, under a threat of new intensive civil disobedience campaign, just before his resignation, expressing Gandhi’s profound disbelief that such a campaign (as pointed out by Bose) could be conducted without Violence”

“To many he (Gandhi) is a strange enigma, an aggregate of inconsistencies, and his subtilty of argument is often uncomprehending and baffling. But of his courage, his integrity of purpose, the splendors of his idealism his deep patriotism and his fine example of public conduct and personal sacrifice there is an all but universal recognition.”

This is how Mahatma Gandhi who worked for India’s Independence all through his life refused to celebrate Independence because of large scale riots from July to September 1947. Because of partitions riots which were instigated and initiated by Muslim League in August – September 1946 in Bengal particularly in Calcutta, it is pertinent to quote Ram Chandra Guha from his book India after Gandhi: “By starting a riot in Calcutta in August 46 Jinnah and the League hoped to polarize the two communities further and thus force the British to divide India when they finally quit. In this endeavor they richly succeeded.”

Mahatma Gandhi was hardly secular as he was a staunch Hindu and considered India after partition to be a Hindu country. It is significant to quote what Gandhi ji said on December 4, 1947 hardly a couple of months before his assassination by a fanatic Hindu Nathu Ram Godse.

“Even Guru Nanak never said that he was not a Hindu nor did any other Guru. It can not be said that Sikhism, Hinduism. Buddhism and Jainism are separate religions. All these four faiths and their off shoots are one. Hinduism is an ocean into which all the rivers run. It can absorb Islam and Christianity and all other religions and only then can it become ocean” (Collected works of Mahatma Gandhi, Publication of Government of India of various years, volume 90 p 177)

In the words of Nirad C Chaudhary , ‘Gandhi had the capacity for prevarication of a Hindu Bania and Hindu Guru combined and like both he think that what he desired must be necessarily right’ (C Chaudhary ‘The Hand of Great Anarch’ India 1921-52 , Laden 1987 p 792)

After talks with and influenced by Suhrawardy Gandhi became more pro-Muslim and anti-Sikh. He started calling Muslims as a separate religion but continued to call Sikhs (Sheekh) as culprits and criminals who killed Muslims (in retaliation so as to stop killing of Hindu and Sikhs in Pakistan.)

Because of large scale riots Gandhi did not take part in celebrations of Independence day on 15th August 1947 but instead undertook a 24 hour fast saying ‘Do you wish to hold celebrations in the midst of this devastation’

This proved that Mahatma Gandhi truly believed and propagated non-violence. This also proves that M K Gandhi had become a Mahatma in real sense and rightly known throughout India and the world as Mahatma Gandhi – apostle of Non – Violence.

To conclude, we cannot forget or minimize Mahatma Gandhi’s emphasis on non-violent struggle for independence, which was adopted by many leaders of America and Africa. In USA, Martin Luther King’s struggle for racial equality and end of discrimination against colored people particularly Africans was crowned with great and unique success. In South Africa, the South African leader NELSON MANDELA who had been imprisoned for 30 years by colonial government and that, too, in a solitary confinement for many years in a far off island of south of South Africa, emulated Gandhi’s non-violence and though after independence of South Africa he became the first African (non-white) President of South Africa he did not harbor any grudge against the erstwhile white rulers.

Highest tribute was paid by great scientist Albert Einstein, recognizing Gandhi’s contribution to peace, brotherhood of mankind, absence of hatred and above all non-violent struggle for attaining independence with truth honesty and sacrifice, all rolled into one. It is very pertinent to quote Einstein: “generations to come will scarcely believe that such a man as this (Gandhi) walked the earth in flesh and blood”

August 25, 2009 Posted by | India, Indian History | , , , , , , | 1 Comment

The Great Calcutta Killings (1946)

Speech by Shyma Prasad Mookerjea in Bengal Assembly.

“Direct Action Day itself was not the day for commencing Direct Action, it was at the same time printed out that the war had begun, the days of peace and compromise were over and now the Jehad Muslim leaders want Civil War. Only a pattern of civil war, according Mr Jinnah, was witnessed in the very city of Calcutta. Khwaja Nizamudin said that Muslims did not believe in non-violence at all, Muslims knew what Direct Action meant and there were one hundred and one ways in which this was made clear by responsible League leaders……….. it is astonishing fact that a gun shop within two minutes walk from Government House was looted. Not a single policeman turned up in the streets to control the situation in any part of the city”. Another stailing revelation by Mookarjea in Bengal Assembly was…. “the Muslim League party wanted 500 gallons of petrol from Bengal Government. That was not granted, but petrol coupons were issued in the name of individual Ministers general coupons—100 gallons being issued in the name of Chief Minister. Evidence is available that these coupons were used… it is not in Calcutta alone that atrocities were committed in a large scale but we find that troubles are spreading in the whole of Bengal….. The concerned of Action of the All India Muslim League has ordered that prepositions have to be made for giving effect to the Direct Action Program”.

From the above extracts it is clear that Jinnah had instigated the Calcutta Killings as a prelude to ‘Civil War’ when to implement the Direct Action gallons of Petrol were supplied to Ministers of Muslim League Government in Bengal.

Riots had started in West Punjab in April 1947 and hundreds of innocent unarmed Hindus and Sikhs were killed. Women molested and many jumped into wells to save honour. Half a dozen families of my relatives reached Ferozepore Cantt from our village and Peshawar Cantt, where we were living in a military bunglow. We gave one room of the main bunglow and all the five servant quarters and a garrage to the families of our relatives from our village Mangwal in District Jehlum and Peshawar Cantonment. Our House was a minor Refugee Camp from April 47 to September 47. When Muslims from Ferozepore either got killed in retaliation or migrated to Pakistan. As a result, our relatives, each family occupied, a Muslim migrant house.

All this had great impact on me and in April 47, I visited my college Hostel and addressed all the hostelers telling them of the cruelities heaped on Hindus and Sikhs in West Punjab. I led an open sword procession in April – 47 against likely creation of Pakistan Shouting – ‘Pakistan Murdabad’ Nahi Banega Pakistan ie Hell with Pakistan and Pakistan can not come in existance. We had passed through Muslim areas of Ferozepore Cantt without any mishap becuase Muslims of Ferozepore knew that Ferozepore can not go to Pakistan as it was Sikh-Hindu Majority district of undivided Punjab, so they remained confined to their houses and shops.

But AngloIndian S.P. (Police Kaptan) of Ferozepore rang up my respected father who was Captain and Acting Major in British Indian Army. S.P. Evens told my father in unambiguous words: “Captain saheb, you control your son Harcharan Singh who has led a procession against Pakistan, shouting provocative slogans against creation of Pakistan and that too, through areas of Muslims. Luckily there was no retaliation and no riots but anything could happen.” My respected father who had all the love for me and had never even scolded me, what to speak of beating or even slapping, told my eldest brother. While father dear had gone to office, my eldest brother called ne in his room bolted the room from inside and gave severest possible thrashing, I was crying. But my respected mother was crying, too, because she, too, had never scolded me or beaten me since I was a child of 4-5 years. She was shouting ‘stop it now Nirmal’ ( my eldest brothers name who too was in Army and later retired as Major), she was knocking and crying. Ultimately I got free from my brother’s clutches and stopped crying as I was no more a 4-5 year old child but a young boy of 16-1/2 and a college student and knew what I was doing.

My respected father had BSA double barrel gun and a sophisticated revolver both duly licenced. I knew where these were lying in what room and in which box. So to test my ability to fire in case of attack on our family when all other male members were in office or away, I took out first the double barrel gun put a cartridge in it, put a small circle on the back of a servant quarter, of another officer house and fired. So i could fire in case of emergency fight the terrorist and save the family. Next day I took out revlover a put one bullet, little knowing that bullet of the center does not get fired so continued and the revolver revolved fully, the bullet got fired. Luckily I had fired up in the sky and there was no damage or injury to me or mishap. I did not stop there, realizing that bullet that got fired was before the central hole of revolver so I put another bullet before the central hole and fired and the bullet went as I expected. I was satisfied. I had told my respected mother what and why I had done. She embraced me and blessed me.

But when my father dear and eldest brother reached home they came to know. They, instead of scolding or slapping me advised that I should have first learned how to fire a gun or revolver. But when I fully explained the reason they kept quiet neither scolded me nor blessed me but just ignored the incident which could be an accident.

Luckily in May 47 I got an opportunity to attend Selection and Training Camp in Taradevi, near simla. Headquarter of United Punjab Scouts Association. I went to attend the Camp for a fortnight. I had participated in cross country race, in other activities plus I led the ‘Bhangra’ reciting a Punjabi poem about Basakhi Mela and all the scouts sitting and standing round the ‘Camp fire’ joined in Bhangra Dance and at the end of each stenza Shouted with me Halla Belia, Halla Belia meaning yes dear friend, yes dear friend. This item was instrumental in my selection for World scouts Jamboree in Paris from 5th to 20th August 1947.

So along with other scouts from all over India numbering about 80. We boarded the Ship S.S Alcantra from Bombay on 4th July 1947 reaching Southampton port on 23rd July after 19 days. The most interesting part of my first journey abroad was that all the butlers of the Ship were British and they served us saying. Sir what would you like to have for breakfast. Omellet, Fried eggs or boiled eggs. This gave us the feeling that though we were yet to gain independence on 15th August, we had virtually become free and equal to British. It was interesting to visit Aden for a few hours then passing Suez Canal, crossing Mediteranean Sea touching Malta and Gibraltar and ultimately reaching Southamption Port and Rail journey to London.

The stay in London was brief while on way to our destination Paris, where world scouts Jamboree Camp was about 30 miles out of Paris. After crossing the English Channel. From London the entire Common wealth contingent travelled by same train and there British photographer took our snaps standing in window – myself, a British scout a ceylonese scout. This photo by Reuter appeared in London Times, copy of which I have with me even today as a memory and the same was valued by my parents and sisters and brothers and now by my Children and grand-children. They often say “Papaji you get it beautifully framed” as a parmanent record as prior to independence very few Indians used to visit England and France and hardly anyone had photograph by Reuter. But I have left it to my Children and grand children as I am already 78 years old and busy writing my diary, poems in Punjabi and English and this Book.

In the World Jambaree Camp we daily visited some country’s camp or other particularly visiting American, Canadian, some African Countries’ camp including that of South Africa which was then a British Colony, some Latin American Country’s Camps and of course British and French Scouts Camps. This broadened our outlook and we took autographs and addresses of many scouts from many countries.

The most interesting and memorable part of our visit to world scout jamboree at Paris was on 15th August 1947 when in Indian Camp both Indian and Pakistani flags were hoisted replacing the British Union Jack.

A van from Radio Paris had come to our camp to record the hoisting of flags of free India and newly created independent state of Pakistan. On behalf Indian scouts I was honoured by being asked by the Indian scout contigent leader Rao Bhadur Thadeus, to speak on behalf of Indian scouts. I immediately agreed as I felt it to be great honor and recognition. So I spoke for a couple of minutes concluding with ‘Jai Hind’ thrice and all the Indian scouts enthusiatically and loudly said Jai Hind. This speech by scout Harcharan Singh was hooked up and broadcast on All India Radio after to 9:30 PM. Prime Time News in English by Melvelle De Mello. This was heard by any parents and all the family members though I had not mentioned my name but my parents and all relatives recognised my voice as some sentences I spoke in Punjabi, too, Similarly a Muslim boy from Punjab contingent spoke for Pakistan concluding ‘Pakistan Zindabad’. My photograph where I am speaking before mike and other Indian scouts standing behind me appeared in French News Paper La Monde and some French scouts recognised and showed me. I have a copy of that photo, too, as a great honour and I value it very much.

The INA and its fight for India’s independence and Navy rebellion convinced Labour Party that India should get independence as early as possible thus Labour Government of Attlee proposed for India’s Independence in contrast of Churchill who was adament and not in favour of Indian independence saying “I have not become First Minister to preside over lequidation of British Empire.”

Krishna Menon who was before Independence of India, a member British labour Party, in his interview with Michael Breher, describes the way India’s Independence was expedited. This is how Attlee the socialist and the Cabinet Mission under the chairmanship of Pathic Lawrence functioned half heartedly encouraging Muslim League and indirectly working for partition of India and so could be held responsible for partition massacre of millions initiated by Muslim League first in Bengal in 1946 and then in west Punjab. Menon Says: “Negotiations and missions they did not envisage that the thing (end of British rule) was really to come so soon. They probably thought it was going to be just a newer session of a Simon commission and would mean more protracted negotiations, and that gradually our difficulties would lead to a partnership with England or something of the kind. This was how it appeared to them in 1943-5. That situation soon changed. I would like to think that a man like Mr Pathick – Lawrence made a big contribution towards abdication, saying, ‘We have to go.’

But my own feeling is that if Attlee had the imagination to realize in 1945 that it would happen in 1947 he would have worked it another way. The British had sufficient power at that time to see that it happened. The same thing could have been said to the princes. It must be remembered that as a socialist, Attlee had certain limitations. He had not understood the character and the passions that went into nationalism, posed a contradiction. Having fed the Muslim league for half a century with seperatism, the British created a Frankenstein monster; they should have laid it low, at least when leaving. Instead they used it as a spectre and to create pressure against Indian nationalism. Yet after all it was a great achievement for Mr. Attlee. I think that Pathick – Lawrence was a much greater man that most people thought at the time. He was the chairman of the cabinet mission. He was really the functioning member. He had a good grasp of things.

I had attended the world scouts jamborer in paris from 5th to 25th August 1947. After Independence of India on 15th August when India and Pakistan flags were unfurled at Indian Camp, On behalf of Indian scouts I had addressed on Radio Paris concluding with “Jai Hind” thrice. I had virtually become scout leader of Indian Scouts particularly those from Punjab.

When we returned to London, we stayed in the scout and girl guide headquarter where British girl guides accompanied us for first couple of days to show us London, places famous for sight seeing – Parliament, Big Ben, national Museum, Hyde Park and Trafalgar Square. The girl guide accompanying me was so beautiful and affectionate that when I was to leave London for India she came to me and said “Singh, you take me to India”. Of course I could not though a while parting she kissed my bearded face and I returned the mild kiss but she got my address and wrote a couple of letters to me at Ferozepore and I did reply.

After girl guides help for a couple of days I used to go alone by ‘Tube’ i.e. underground railway, and visit all the places shown by her independently. I always carried my snacks. In the Museum library a junior librarian showed me all the reading rooms and book shelfs and even told me that this was the table where Karl Marx used to sit and write for 30 years or more till his death. We had heard the name of Karl Marx but not yet known his political philosophy and contribution to political philosophy.

In London we read about partition riots in London Times and other papers. There were news about retaliation by Sikhs and Hindus in Punjab which excited Muslim scouts and Punjab’s contingent leaders Mr. Qureshi. They even indirectly threatened us particularly teh Sikh scouts who were just 8 and Muslim scouts were 30 and Hindu scouts of Punjab contingent only 10 or 12. From their looks many Hindu scouts of the age of 12 to 15 came to me and expressed their fear. I took up the courage and told Indian contingent leader a Keralite Christian about all that. He simply said he will look into it. But not to rest. I wrote a letter to Chief scout of Punjab Sardar Hardyal Singh at Taradevi, simla hills. I think he rang up both Mr. Qureshi and Mr. Thadeus because after 10 days the muslim scouts from Punjab and NWFP became quiet and looked on the other side instead of staring at us. The result was that after independence Muslim and Hindu-Sikh scouts of punjab contigent got seperated. There was no talk or exchange of greetings between us. We were virtually too independent sub contingents.

As we boarded the ship for return journey to India and Pakistan we had no contact between us for 15 days of journey. And at Bombay port we got completely separated, the Muslim scouts left for Karachi, the temporary capital of pakistan and we remained in Bombay for 3-4 days till we got a safe train for Delhi. From New Delhi there was no train going to Punjab so we went by goods trucks to our various places and Sikhs and Hindu scouts who had come from West Punjab, now part of Pakistan in turmoil, remained in Bombay to be sent to their parents or relatives who had migrated or were turned out of Pakistan occupied Punjab. It was not immediately known about the parents and the whereabouts of Hindu and Sikh scouts from Lahore and beyond. So they were taken to Scout headquarter in Taradevi or continued to stay in Bombay.

On 14th October I reached by truck to Ferozepore Cantt bus stop(Adda) there was no tonga available so I walked with my baggage on my shoulders about 4 miles and reached my home unaccompanied by anyone ar about 11 pm. My parents and relatives were happy, rather ecstatic, and also surprised and excited to how I had reached safe and sound. I immediately opened my bag and showed two wrist watches for my elder sister one gents and one ladies as she was likely to be married in couple of years. I also brought small gifts for younger sisters like bangles and clips and for my dear mother a shawl and for my father a Parker pen and for home an electric iron which was nowhere in Ferozepore or even in India in those days. All were very happy and blessed me.

August 25, 2009 Posted by | Uncategorized | , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Passing away of Pandit Nehru

(Brief assessment of Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru)

In 1964, India’s first PM who became Prime Minister in 1946 in united India before Partition of 1947, passed away after 18 years as PM, longest period for any PM, except in communist country. Pandit Nehru from 1946 to 1950, as long as Mountbatten was Governor General of British India or even after Indian Independence, was subservient to Lord Mountbatten and till the departure of Mountbatten he was like member of Mountbatten family. This proved to be curse because Mountbatten mischievously had added a clause while accepting, Kashmir’s instrument of accession to India, duly segined by Maharaja Hari Singh, and forwarded to Pandit Nehru by Kashmir’s ‘PM’ Mehar chand Mahajan, whom Jawahar Lal had a fortnight earlier told to get -lost. When he had come with the same instrument of accession, though hundred of princely States sent the similar Instrument Accession which were accepted. In Kashmir’s case, Pandit Nehru received the Instrument of Accession when Sheikh Mohd Abdullah told the PM of India that Pakistani invaders had almost reached the outskirts of Srinagar and on the way they were looting and indiscriminately molesting Hindu, Sikh and Muslim women.

To India’s and Kashmir’s misfortune Kashmir’s instrument of Accession was sent to Mountbatten who had added, as said earlier, an uncalled for and dangerous clause that ‘will of the people of Kashmir’ will be taken afterwards. Jawahar Lal Nehru as India PM could have deleted this clause after discussing with GG but did not or could not use his intelligence, discretion or authority as Prime Minister considering himself the final authority and Mountbatten as titular head. It was only after Mountbatten’s departure that he became real and effective PM with C Rajgopal acharya as titular Governor General for a couple of years till 1952, when Indian parliament became effective under the new Constitution.

It is significant to quote from CF Andrews ‘Great Men of India, Jawahar Lal Nehru writes in another remarkable passage about himself, “I have been a queer mixture of East and West, out of place everywhere, at home nowhere. Perhaps my thoughts and approach to life are more alien to what is called Western than Eastern, but India clings to me as it does to all her children, in unmeasurable ways. I cannot get rid of my past inheritance or my recent acquisition. They are both part of me and though they help me both in the East and West, they west in me a feeling of spiritual loneliness, not only in public activities but life itself. I am stranger and alien in the west. I can not be of it. But my own country also, sometimes. I have an exile feeling.”

Nehru depended on Rajaji’s advice as he regarded Rajaji as his closest friend, guide and associate in the entire hierarchy of congress government as well as congress party.

But it will appear strange that after a year or so Nehru sent Rajaji as chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. A former head of state, first Indian Governor General being shifted out of Delhi to far off Madras was something CR could not stomach. Soon he left the congress party and Nehru and found his though short live Sawtantera Party.

That was not all Dr. Rajendra Prasad the first elected President of Indian Republic under new constitution was not given the respect due to the Head of Democratic Republic though Dr. Rajendra Prasad was orthodox Hindu and Pandit Nehru a progressive Indian, not much of a Hindu. Their differences come to limelight when Dr. Prasad opposed the Hindu Code Bill sponsored by Dr. Ambedkar, the then law Minister and Pandit Nehru supported the Hindu Code Bill even saying that in getting the Hindu code Bill passed involved his prestige. But because of opposition from vast majority of Hindus who were orthodox and were led by RSS, the bill could not to be passed in the constituent Assembly. As a result Dr. Ambedkar resigned from the cabinet.

As Nehru had even opposed the election of Dr. Rajendra Prasad as President of India their differences increased to somewhat dislike for each other. With the demise of Sardar Patel in 1950 December, Nehru felt free and independent of any restraint, direct or indirect, from any other congress leaders in Party or Government as Sardar Patel was the only the leader who had large following in congress though he was Home Minister and Minister of states. So long as Patel was alive Nehru was virtually reduced in status, though a PM, as Minister of External Affairs with virtually no interference or advice in connection with integration of princely status and more particularly Police Action in Hyderabad.

Guha’s remarks on the President of India’s visit to Somnath Temple, which had been destroyed many times by the Mughal invaders and rulers, show the extent of differences amount of disrespect that Nehru had now cultivated against Dr. Rajendra Prased: “when the President of India chose to dignify temples consecration with his presence, Nehru was appalled. He wrote to Prasad not to participate in the ‘spectacular opening of the Somenath temple (which) unfortunately had a number of implications’. But Prasad disregarded the advice and went to Somnath. Although he was a Hindu, said Prasad at Somnath. ‘I respect all religions and on occasions visit a church, a morque, a dargah and a gurudwara’.

Like Rajaji who was sent to Madras as CM uncrumoniously so Dr. Rajendra Prasad was not given second term as President and not provided a befitting residence after vacating Rastrapati Bhawan, had to leave for Patna without a farewell befitting First President of India.

After that Nehru made his daughter Indra Gandhi Congress President . Her first undemocratic act was to organise mass upsurge against first Comminist government of EMS Nambudripad in Kerala to force him to resign. It is written that after the EMS Govt was dismissed she asked American government through US Ambassador to compensate her party with millions of dollars to fight another election to keep these Communists in Kerala down and out.

Thus Nehru groomed his daughter and had he lived for a few more years he might have given her more responsibility in Party and Government. It is in this light that after Lal Bahadur Shastri’s brief Prime Ministership, she became an obvious choice of congress Party to become Prime Minister. In this way Jawahar Lal Nehru laid the foundation of dynastic rule in centre and in states. This dynastic rule politics has done great harm to India and Indian democracy.

As I have explained earlier Nehru considered himself at least half western in thoughts, words and to an extent in his deeds. That is why he could not adjust with the cent per cent Indians in upbringing and culture like Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Sardar Patel.

Nehru accepted socialism and tried to implement so called Socialist Pattern of Society which in due course degenerated into what was being called ‘Inspector Raj’. Half hearted attempt to implement Marxist Socialism was bound to fail as vast majority did not know about Marxism or socialism. They only knew about Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of Ahimsa. Some followed revolutionary philosophy of Bhagat Singh and Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. Accordingly Socialist Pattern of Society, instead of improving the lot of farmers and organised and unorganised labouress, made them subservient to Rationing Inspectors and the like. There was no progress in Industry and Agriculture. Rather both Agriculture and Industry deteriorated. Thus India under Nehru’s Socialist Pattern of society instead of moving forward went backward, economically, socially and politically.

Similarly Nehru’s efforts to organise non- aligned nations with Tito of Yugoslavia and Nasser of Egypt and the policy of Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai ultimately failed.

In 1962 there was Chinese aggression, which was absolutely unprovoked, into North Eastern border of India called NEFA and ladakh. Chinese troops were advancing and capturing vast areas when Nehru made a statement that I had asked Indian Army “to kick Chinese out” and he proceeded to Ceylon, little realizing the consequences of such an incursion into Indian territory which had never occurred before. Within a fortnight Chinese troops overran entire NEFA and reached the boundary touching Assam. Then Chinese dictated terms of withdrawal of Chinese troops after making hundred of Indian soldiers prisoners.

In Military History of India and South Asia, it is stated as under: “After defeat of India in 1962 at the hand of China and after China dictated the terms of withdrawal from vast areas of NEFA and some areas of Ladakh, Pandit Nehru now decided to approach USA for air cover”. Writing to President John F Kennedy he described the situation as “really desperate” and requested immediate dispatch of 12 squadrons of fighter aircrafts—–for Nehru who had talked so much on non alignment, it was a crushing acceptance of failure.

Though President Kennedy, on the recommendation of US Ambassador in India John Kennedy Galbrith, a renowned Harward Economist who gave twist to USA’s a Free Market Economy, agreed to Nehru request for a financial aid and arms and sanctioned “supply of a million rounds for machine guns, 40,000 land mines and 1,00,000 mortar rounds. Though USA was not in favour of India because of India’s close contacts and relations with USSR, many senators opposed giving military and financial aid to Nehru who was a proclaimed socialist and to a great extent anti-American in opposition to Pakistan who had always been pro American. Senator Russel in particular opposed any sort of assistance to India. His opposition to Kennedy helping India militarily got wide publicity in USA as senator Russel was the chairman of senate Armed Forces Committee.

This was and the humiliating defeat of Indian Army had weakened Nehru’s position not only in USA and rest of world where he was known as champion of non alignment, but also in India and Congress Party itself. As a result decision making had been shifted from Prime Minister’s house to the congress Parliamentary Party. Inspite of hostile criticism by Senetor Russel and many others Kennedy and Galbrith, though upset, continued to give moral support to Nehru and India.

Chinese aggression and defeat of Indian Army was a great and unbearable shock to Pandit Nehru who had treated himself not only undisputed leader of India but of entire non-aligned world. Krishna Menon, Nehru’s favourite Defence Minister had to resign. Jawahar Lal Nehru himself could not bear this shock and in frustration and shame, within two years he scummbed to this unbearable shock and passed away in 1964.

However Nehru made an emotional speech in 15th August 1947 which is considered very touching and is renowned not only in India but throughout the English speaking world. India’s Prime Minister said: at midnight of ushering 15th August and India’s Independence; “At the stroke of midnight hour, when he world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom—-a moment which comes rarely in history when we step out from the old to the new, when as age ends and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed finds utterance”.

There is no doubt that Nehru was one of the renowned leaders of India’s struggle for independence. Few nations have had leaders of such acknowledged intelligence as Jawahar Lal Nehru Dr. Rajendra Prasad, C Rajagopal Acharya —-Jawahar Lal Nehru served three full terms in office, (as Prime Minister) a privilege denied to any other Prime Minister of India or abroad in a democracy.

Thus despite all his shortcomings because of love for Western Culture and not considering Mountbatten as titular Governor General and not being able to take strong action in Kashmir and Hyderabad fovouring his sister Vijay Laxmi Pandit and daughter Indira Gandhi over others Jawahar Lal Nehru was a great and respected leader of India. He was pride of India like Gandhiji and will be remembered for ever. Even Ghandhiji had same shortcomings but these do not mitigate his status in India and the world. So Nehru, too, will be remembered always.

August 24, 2009 Posted by | Uncategorized | , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Sardar Patel

Sardar Patel, unlike Gandhi and Jawahar Lal had roaring practice as a brilliant lawyer thus in a few years he saved enough money and booked a passage through Thomas Cooke for UK to become Bar – at- Law. But that was not to be through for the time being. His elder brother Vithal Bhai Patel asked him to allow him to go to UK. Just to become Bar-at-Law. As initials of both brothers were the same VB (Vallabhh Bahi and Vithal Bhai) Vithal Bhai traveled to UK in the same ticket, as Sardar Patel had lot of regard for his elder brothers being from a peasant family. This showed how selfless was Sardar Patel to start with and continued till his demise. Now I quote from the book by Mr. Chapra “Sardar of India”

“When his brother returned to India after completing his studies in London, Vallabh Bhai left for the UK in 1970 and joined the Middle Temple Inn. With his meager resources, he had to work hard in London too and would walk about 14 kms daily to go to and return from the library in the middle temple when he was already 35. The Sardar won a prize of £50 and got a first-class and first position in the finals in the Inns of Court, London. Being the son of a peasant, Vallabh bhai was eager to go to the villages around London and acquire first-hand knowledge which he did after his examination was over. He returned to India with flying colors. In spite of an attractive offer made by the then Chief Justice of Bombay, of a Professorship at the then Chief Justice of Bombay, of a Professorship at the Government Law School (the college was known as ‘school’), Vallabh bhai preferred to come over to Ahemdabad.”

Sardar Patel had decided to do for Ahemdabad and thereafter for Independence movement under Gandhiji though he did not agree with the Mahatma in every aspect. He devoted more time, after declining professorship of Law College to municipal administration with a view to improve. He thereafter took stand against two arrogant British Commissioners and got them removed. These officers were Mr Shillidy and Masscy.

His spirit of service for people was remarkable. It came from his heart and soul in this connection I would like to quote Shri G.V Malvankar another prominent social worker and followers of Gandhiji and his non-violent movement for India’s freedom from British Rule.

“His spirit of service and devotion to duty were of such an exceptional character that as chairman of the municipal sanitary committee, he struck to his residence in the city of Ahmedabad when plague (1917) was raging and refused to move out for personal safety. His was a familiar figure moving in the streets of Ahmedabad, getting the sewers cleaned and the plague-stricken areas disinfected.”

Sardar Patel’s unique contribution to India’s unity and unification, as never before, was (1) Integration of 562 Princely states with newly independent India and (2) successful intervention in Kashmir when all the others leader were indifferent and seemed helpless against British intrigues and for Pakistan Jinnah not only wanted to integrate Kashmir with Pakistan but waited and tried to win over Maharaja of Jodhpur and Nawab of Bhopal with all types of temptations like a corridor, and financial help, arms and use of Karachi port.

Failure of Jinnah and success of Sardar Patel is described by K.M. Punnikar who was Prime Minister of Bikaner in letter dated 7th September 1947 to Sardar Patel that your understanding and vision killed the dispersion of most of the princes and gave us support when we most required it and not only India but the states as a whole owe you a deep gratitude.”

It was indeed a miracle that the Sardar was able to achieve the merger of about 562 princely states comprising one-third of the total area of India into the Indian union within a short span of less than two years. The obstacles seemed to be insurmountable when he took over the reins of office.

Later on Mountbatten used to observe, according to Hudson, “I am glad to say” that “Nehru has not been put in charge of the new states department, which would have wrecked everything. Patel, who is essentially a realist and very sensible, is going to take it over…..”

A few days before 15 August 1947, hostile combination of Indian Princes sprang up with a plan to protect the Pakistan frontier from the border of Sindh to the borders of Bhopal on the one side and to the Surat District on the other. It was indeed a bold and formidable move but the Sardar was able to break this combination; each element, to quote K.M. Munshi, “was segregated and destroyed”.

On the success of his mission Sardar in a statement before the Constituent Assembly on 12th October 1949 observed:

The great ideal of geographical, political and economic unification of India, an ideal which for centuries remained a distant dream and which appeared as remote and as difficult of attainment even after the advent of Indian independence was consummated by the policy of integration.

The story of the merger of the Indian states into the Indian union has been told by the Sardar’s right – hand man, V.P. Menon, in his well – known work, The story of the Integration of Indian Stated and need not be repeated here. “Suffice to say that the Sardar’s India was greater in size than that of Samudragupta, Asoka and Akbar and the writ of the Center wielded an authority and respect never dreamt of by these greatest of Indian rulers.”

Nizam of Hydrabad supported by Razakars and Pakistan had ambition of being ruler of an independent country duly being recognized by Pakistan, Britain and India. But Sardar Patel was determined to end Nizam’s dream and integrated Hyderabad fully like any other princely state. He called Major General Choudhary asking him straight question as how many days of military (Police) action would be required to finish Razakar resistance and integrate Hyderabad with rest of India. General cordially said at the most a week.

Thus Hyderabad was made part of Indian union within 5 days and Major General Choudhary was honoured as military governor of Hyderabad and Sardar Patel when he visited Hyderabad after a few days stayed with General Choudhary who felt greatly honured.

As in the case of integration of Hyderabad there was division in the cabinet in case of Kashmir Mountbatten had sympathies with Pakistan as he was friendly with Churchill and was influenced by his thinking. The chief of army of India, General Bucher was reluctant and was against sending Indian Army in Kashmir. It was only Sardar Patel who was, as in the case of Hyderabad determined to send Indian Army to Kashmir for Kashmir’s accession and integration with India.

In Hyderabad Hindus were in majority while in Kashmir it was quite different as Muslims were in majority in Kashmir. Hindus were in Majority in Jammu and Buddhist were in majority in Ladakh.

To solve the Kashmir problem there was a meeting under the chairmanship of Lord Mountbatten. From the biography of Vallabhbhai Patel, I quote below in length to clarify the role of Mountbatten, Bucher, Nehru and Patel.

“General Bucher asserted that resources available to him were so meager that military assistance to the state would not be possible. Lord Mountbatten exhibited studied diffidence. Panditji presented a picture of acute anxiety and deep concern. Sardar listened, did not utter a word.” He was a picture of calm equipoise. His silence was a strange contrast to a picture of defeatism and helplessness that otherwise pervaded in the meeting. “Suddenly Sardar moved in his seat and immediately in his gruff and resolute voice attracted everybody. He conveyed the following: “Look here, General, Kashmir must be defended at all costs and come what may, resources or no resources. You must do it and all assistance will be rendered by Government. This must, must and must be done. Do whatever you like, but do it…” The General wore a grim look. A ray of hope shot through me. The generals might have wished to demur, but Sardar quietly got up and saying that arrangements for ‘operation airlift’ would be ready by the next morning…defense of Kashmir thus was the result of Sardar’s decisiveness and determined will to implement the decision, whatever the odds.”

Sir Aurobindo, the great seer who had given up active politics and lived the life of a Karmayogi in Pondicherry, had rightly prophesied as early as December 22, 1946, in a remark to a query from his disciple. “Out of all of them. Patel is the only strong man.”

Along with General Bucher, Nizam was supported by many Britishers of the conservative party like Sir Walter Monckton and RA Butler who were on Churchill’s side. Butler emphasized that “Britain should press for the just claims of Hyderabad to remain independent”

Thus Sardar Patel’s achievements like the Police action in Hyderabad, sending Indian Army in Kashmir against opposition by Britishers and indifference of Nehru were more than any other Indian contemporary or past leader and rulers. Whole of India salutes the great Sardar and shall remember him for ever.

Nehru – Patel Controversy

Nehru was Prime Minister duly supported by Gandhi and all the Congress leaders and workers after independence of the country. After partition of India and creation of Muslim state of Pakistan, Patel wanted that Muslims of India should prove their loyalty to India but Nehru was of the opinion that it was the responsibility of Congress and the Government to make Muslims of India feel secure.

Though Nehru and Patel did not see eye to eye on many subjects and policy matters, it was ultimately Sardar Patel who advised all congress men to follow Nehru as Bapu appointed him as his successor and had even proclaimed him as such. It is the duty of all Bapu’s soldiers to carry out his bequest. I am not a disloyal soldier. It was Patel’s decency that prevented an open rupture between the two over Congress Presidency.

August 24, 2009 Posted by | India, Indian History | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Second Parliament – A Brief Survey

The wheel of democratic elections has completed the third round and the chariot of parliamentary democracy has started moving smoothly on the Indian soil. In fact the greatest experiment in parliamentary democracy is being conducted in India. It is thus that, during the third general elections, the attention of the entire world was focused on India though the outcome, in terms of victory of Indian national congress and formation of government by Mr. Nehru, was never in doubt.

The success of parliamentary democracy in India has special significance because except in Colombo, the lights of democracy have gone out all around India in Karachi, Rangoon and Kathmandu. Even in Europe, except in U.K. Parliamentary democracy had got into trouble everywhere. There is quasi-dictatorship in France while Spain and Portugal are being run on the line of Hitlerite one-man rule. There is some sort of direct democracy in Switzerland, but in small countries like Holland and Belgium it does not much matter to the outside world whether there is Parliamentary democracy or military dictatorship. It is in this context that a brief survey of the second parliament has been attempted.

Can the world afford to be taken to the brink of war every six months or a year?

The history of events since the end of Second World War has shown that colonialism can not be defended bu dollar aids and communism can not be “contained” by military pacts. West should work for a negotiated retreat form its empires, colonies and protectorates and U.S.A should stop financing and equipping futile campaigns like that a French in Indo-China and Algeria and that of Chiang Kai-shek against Mao Tse-Tung.

The price of lasting peace is the end of all colonies and protectorates retreat of all U.S. Fleets to the American waters termination of Atlantic and war saw alliances suspension of nuclear tests and abolition of nuclear weapons.

By attempting to support the cause of discredited leaders like Chouman, Hussein and Chiang Kai-shek and defend colonies like Algeria and Goa. The west is burning its own boats. It is not only strengthening the forces of communism but disappointing and antagonizing the uncommitted nations like India, Egypt and Indonesia.

As Lok Sabha is the august law – making body and greatest single repository of sovereignty more attention had been paid to its works and achievements during 1957-1965. The main object is to see how far India has succeeded in the great experiment of establishing parliamentary democracy on a sound footing.

Composition And Class Structure

In the outset variations in the composition and structure of second Lok Sabha vis-a-vis first lok sabha must be pointed out and their implications analyzed. From the above table it will be seen that in the second Lok Sabha, except P.S.P. all the national political parties improved their representation at the cost of independents and other un-recognised political parties. The chief gainer was the C.P.I which earned recognition as the main opposition group in the Lok Sabha.

It is noteworthy that in the first general elections a plethora of political parties and groups were given ad-hoc recognition i.e. 14 as national parties and 59 as state parties. After the elections were over, the Election Commission decided that hereafter only those political parties would get recognition and symbols which had secured more than 3% of the valid votes polled. At the time of 1957 General Elections only four political parties and 12 as State parties. This is a healthy development.

In the second Lok Sabha the biggest opposition group had 27 votes against 371 of the ruling party. It is understandable because Indian National Congress, upto 1947, was not a political party, in the strict sense, but a national movement under whose banner all those had rallied who wanted to strive for the liberation of India form colonial rule. While, on the other hand, the C.P.I. is an extremist ideology and other parties viz. Jan Sangh and P.S.P are of post-independence origin. Above all no other party has dynamic leadership which Mr. Nehru provides for the Indian National Congress.

On May 10, 1957 the first sitting of the second Lok Sabha was held and upto December, 1961 i.e from the first to fifteenth session, 567 sittings with duration of 3,651 hours and 35 minutes were held. The second Lok Sabha had devoted more time because average duration of a sitting of Second Lok Sabha comes to 6 hours and 35 minutes as compared to 5 hours and 35 minutes of the first Lok Sabha.

There was younger element in the Second Lok Sabha at the majority of members fell in the age-group of 35-40 while in the first Lok Sabha it was the age group of 50-55. The class structure of the second Lok Sabha showed the decline of the professional politicians, businessman, industrialists and lawyers. There was a marked increase in the membership from agriculturist and teaching professions.

Legislative Work

The second Lok Sabha devoted 28.3% of its time to legislative business (excluding Budget) while the first lok Sabha had devoted 48.8%. The Budget matters took about 18% of the time of the second Lok Sabha and Questions 14.6%.

Upto the end of Fifteenth Session there were 209 enactments relating to fiscal, economic, social and political matters. In the fiscal field a number of acts were passed restricting the accumulation and inheritance of wealth (Wealth Tax). The laws relating to expenditure tax and super tax were amended so as to make the rich classed bear greater share of additional taxation required for the financing of the Five Year Plans.

In the economic and social field important acts were passed with the aim of ushering in significant social reforms. Measures like Working Journalists (fixation of rates of wages) Act, the Motor Transport Workers Act, the Maternity Benefit Act and the Iron and Mines Labour Welfare Class Act were brought to statute book.

In the social field most significant work of Second Parliament was the passage of Dowry Prohibition Act. As both houses of Parliament did not aggress to certain provisions of the Dowry Act, the differences were resolved by the joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament. On April 18, 1961, the President notified his intention to summon the Two Houses of Parliament for the consideration of controversial provisions and clauses of the Dowry Bill. The Prime Minister suggested May 6, 1961 for this unique event. The deliberation of the two Houses reached the fruitful culmination in two days. After the disagreement of two Houses on clauses 2 and 4 was resolved the speaker declared the joint concluded as there is no provision in the constitution for the joint sitting.

Other important measures in the social field related to rehabilitation of delinquent children. The children Act provided for the reform and resettlement of neglected and delinquent children and for their trial.

Adjournment Motions and Questions

Out of 1262 adjournment motion received 502 were brought before the Lok Sabha and only three were admitted and discussed. These admitted adjournment motions related to (I) police firing in Sweepers Colony in Delhi, (ii) Breakdown of water supply in Delhi and (iii) failure of Government to protect lie and property of people in Murshidabad – Rajshahi border against intrusions by Pakistani troops. There was heated discussion on all these three adjournment motion after which the two were negatived and the third was withdrawn. From the vast number of adjournment motions brought before the House and admission of only three in the span if Five Years, it becomes clear that there is a tendency to bring forth any adjournment motion on each and every minor issues. The privilege of tabling an adjournment motion has been rather extravagantly used.

During the Second Lok Sabha notices were received for as many as 1,33,328 Questions out of which 62,800 (47%) were admitted. The percentage of admitted questions during the first Lok Sabha was 61. Ministry of Commerce and Industry had to bear the maximum brunt of the questions i.e 13.9% of the admitted questions. Ministries of Railways, Home Affairs and Food and Agriculture trailed behind.

It will be seen from the brief summary of the business of the House that except on Legislative measures all type of other business has taken more time of the second Lok Sabha. More adjournment motions were tabled, greater number of questions was asked and more time was devoted to other national matters and international affairs. It was more interesting to watch the proceedings of the second parliament.

Important Debates

As India is universally recognized leader of the non-aligned group of nations and as the policy of non-aligned is conductive to the maintenance of world peace in which India is passionately interested, discussion of international affairs occupied the pride of place among the important matters discussed and debated in the Second Parliament. Questions relating to international situation and the reactions of Government of India there to came before the Second Lok Sabha as many as eight times. Some of the international matters became so very important for national unity and solidarity that these were discussed time and again. Among the more important issues that came before the Second Parliament are: Situation in Tibet, Sino-Indian relations especially the Chinese incursions into India, Congolese Crisis, Disarmament, and decision of U.K. Government, to join European Common Market. The L.I.C investment policy led to the resignation of Finance Minister T.T.Krishnamachari and compulsory retirement of a senior member of the Indian Civil Service.

Privileges of the Parliament

The Privileges Committee of the second Lok Sabha held 38 meetings and submitted 13 reports to the Lok Sabha and five to its speaker. The most widely-known issue before the Privileges Committee related to the comment and criticism published in a Bombay weekly “Blitz”. On April 11, 1961, Shri J.B.Kripalani, M.P in a speech indicated the Defence Ministry and impeached the Defence Minister Shri V.K.Krishna Menon. “Blitz” in a dispatch from its correspondent in Delhi published that speech, made in the Lok Sabha, with such critical comments that the House regarded it as a breach of its Privileges. The Twelfth and the Thirteenth Reports dealt with the “Blitz” case. The editor of the weekly Blitz was found guilty of the breach of the privileges of the House. He was summoned before the bar of the house and reprimanded by the Speaker. The Blitz case gave rise, in certain quarters, to the demand for the codification of the Privileges of the Parliament. As in no other Parliamentary democracy, the Privileges of the Parliament are codified, it may be left to the parliament’s discretion to decide a privileges issue as and when it arises on its merit, keeping in view the dignity of the House and Fundamental Right of the people.

The completion of the Third General Election symbolized the success of the Parliamentary democracy in India. In conclusion, it will be in the fitness of things to congratulate the speaker of the second Lok Sabha, Shri M. Ananthasyanam Ayyangar and all the members of Parliament for upholding the dignity of the House and for debates in the Indian Parliament was of a meritorious task. The standard of debates in the Indian Parliament was of the first order. We had our Burkes and Gladstones, we also had our churchills and Bevins. They analysed the facts, enlightened the House and served the nation. It can, be safely concluded that the Second Parliament has amply demonstrated the effectiveness of democratic procedures and practices in bringing social reforms and in revolutionizing the economy of India.

August 24, 2009 Posted by | India, Indian History | , , , | Leave a comment